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Table 8 Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and general active transportation

From: Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Residential density    34, 34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Land use mix diversity 34, 34, 62M, 62F, 62 F 62 M, 62 F 62 M 2 N/A N/A N/A
Street connectivity 62 M, 62 F, 62 M, 62 F, 62M, 62F   34, 34 2 N/A N/A N/A
Access to shops/services/work 58, 58, 58, 62 M, 62 F, 62M, 62F, 88 2   34, 34, 57, 88 1 5 8/12 67 +
Access to public transport    34, 34, 57 2 N/A N/A N/A
Access to recreation facilities    34, 34, 58, 62 M, 62 F 3 0/5 0 0
Walking/cycling facilities 57, 62 M, 62 F, 62M, 62F   34, 34, 34, 34, 58 4 5/10 50 (+)
Traffic-related safety 62F, 62 M, 62 F , 62 M, 62 F , 62 M, 62 F , 58, 62 M, 62 F, 62 M, 62 F, 62 M, 62 M 34, 34, 58, 62M, 62 F, 62 F 3 7/20 35 0
Crime-related safety 62 F, 62M   34, 34, 58, 62 M, 62F, 88 1, 88 2 4 2/9 22 00
Aesthetics   88 1 34, 34, 58, 62M, 62F 88 1, 88 1, 88 2, 88 2, 88 2 3 1/11 9 0
Urbanization 62 M, 62 F 51 M, 51 F 62 M, 62 F 2 N/A N/A N/A
  1. * A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C =% of evidence; D = summary code.
  2. Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.
  3. M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females; 1 = specific results for 1st subgroup; 2 = specific results for 2nd subgroup.