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Table 6 Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and total walking/cycling

From: Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Walkability    61 1 N/A N/A N/A
Residential density    33M, 33F 1 N/A N/A N/A
Land use mix diversity 33F   33M 1 N/A N/A N/A
Street connectivity    33M, 33F 1 N/A N/A N/A
Access to shops/services/work 54, 54, 54, 67   33M, 33F, 39M, 39M, 39F, 39F 54, 54, 54, 54, 54, 67 4 4/16 25 00
Access to public transport 33F   33M, 93, 93 2 N/A N/A N/A
Access to recreation facilities 54, 54, 61, 92   33M, 33F, 39M, 39M, 39M, 39M, 39F, 39F, 39F, 39F, 61, 61, 67, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92 6 4/36 11 00
Walking/cycling facilities 26, 33M   33M, 33F, 33F 2 N/A N/A N/A
Safety 54, 71   39M, 39M, 39M, 39M, 39F, 39F, 39F, 39F, 71 3 2/11 18 0
Traffic-related safety    26, 33M, 33F, 39M, 39M, 39F, 39F 3 0/7 0 0
Crime-related safety    26, 33M, 33F, 67, 67 3 0/5 0 0
Aesthetics 54   33M, 33F, 39M, 39M, 39F, 39F, 54, 54, 54 3 1/10 10 0
Urbanization 26, 54   42M, 42F, 67 3 2/5 40 (+)
Quality of environment 71 71 61 2 N/A N/A N/A
  1. * A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C = % of evidence; D = summary code.
  2. Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.
  3. M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females.