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Table 5 Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and leisure-time PA (LTPA)

From: Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Walkability 61   85, 85, 86 3 1/4 25 0
Residential density    34, 34, 55 M, 55 M,55 F, 55 F 2 N/A N/A N/A
Land use mix diversity 34   34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Street connectivity    34, 34, 85, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Access to shops/services/work 70, 88   34, 34, 67, 67, 70, 70, 70, 77, 77, 85, 85 5 2/13 15 00
Access to public transport    34, 34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Access to recreation facilities 29M, 29F, 40 F, 52, 60, 60, 67, 70, 81, 81, 85 60, 60 34, 34, 40 M, 40 M, 40 M,
40 M, 40 M, 40 F, 40 F, 40 F, 40 F, 47, 49, 52, 52, 52, 60, 60, 61, 61, 61, 65 M, 65 M, 65 F, 65 F, 70, 70, 70, 73, 73, 73M, 73M, 73F, 73F, 85
14 11/48 23 00
Walking/cycling facilities    34, 34, 34, 34, 85, 85, 85, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Safety 49 73, 73M, 73F, 73F 55M, 55M, 55F, 55F, 73, 73M, 85, 85 3 4/13 31 0
Traffic-related safety    34, 34, 55 M, 55 M, 55 F, 55 F,70, 70, 85, 85 3 0/10 0 0
Crime-related safety 70, 75   34, 34, 49, 67, 67, 70, 85, 85, 88, 88 6 2/12 17 00
Aesthetics 49, 55 F, 73, 73, 73M, 88, 88   29M, 29M, 29M, 29M, 29F, 29F, 29F, 29F, 34, 34, 55 M, 55 M, 55 F, 73M, 73F, 73F, 85, 85, 88 6 7/26 27 00
Urbanization 29 M, 40, 81, 89, 89 M 27 F, 42M, 42F , 66 27 M, 29 F, 43 MI , 43 MII , 43 FI , 43 FII, 67, 70, 70, 84, 84, 89, 89, 89, 89 M, 89 M, 89 M, 89 F, 89 F, 89 F , 89 F 10 5/30 17 00
Quality of environment 77M, 77F   29M, 29F,61 3 2/5 40 (+)
  1. * A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C = % of evidence; D = summary code.
  2. Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.
  3. M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females; I = specific results for 1st measurement period; II = specific results for 2nd measurement period.