Skip to main content

Table 4 Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and total PA

From: Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Walkability 36, 61, 78, 82, 82 2 , 83, 85, 86, 87   82 1 8 9/10 90 ++
Residential density 87   32, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34 4 1/8 13 0
Land use mix diversity 34   32, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34 3 1/7 14 0
Street connectivity 32, 32, 32   33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 85 4 3/10 30 0
Access to shops/services/work 31, 31, 31, 31, 31, 33F, 67, 74 F 8 33M, 33M, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 57, 58, 58, 58, 67, 74 M , 74 M, 74 F, 82, 82, 85 9 8/26 31 00
Access to public transport    33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 57 4 0/8 0 00
Access to recreation facilities 24, 28, 28, 30, 30,33M, 33F, 441, 442, 46, 481, 482, 61, 67, 68M, 68F, 691, 692, 693, 694, 695, 696, 697, 699, 6910, 6911, 6912, 6914, 6915, 6916, 76   32, 33M, 33F, 34, 34, 48 1, 48 1, 48 1, 48 1, 48 1, 48 1, 48 2, 48 2, 48 2, 48 2, 48 2, 48 2, 52, 52, 58, 61, 61, 698, 6913, 6917, 74 M, 74 M, 74 F, 74 F, 85 17 31/61 51 (++)
Walking/cycling facilities 26   26, 33M, 33M, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 34, 34, 57, 58, 74 M, 74 F, 85, 85 7 1/20 5 00
Safety 46, 46, 481, 482   72M, 72M, 72F, 72F, 74 M, 74 F, 85 6 4/11 36 0
Traffic-related safety 26, 31, 31 32, 32, 46, 58 26, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 58, 85 7 4/17 24 00
Crime-related safety 26, 31 46, 67 26, 33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 46, 46, 58, 67, 85 7 2/16 13 00
Aesthetics 31, 37, 37, 74 M   33M, 33M, 33F, 33F, 34, 34, 58, 74 F, 85 7 4/13 31 00
Urbanization   25, 26, 42M, 42M, 42F, 42F 45 M, 45 F, 56 M, 56 F 25, 26, 67, 84 7 10/14 71 --
Quality of environment 61, 72F, 72F, 74 M, 74 F   72M, 72M 3 5/7 71 +
  1. * A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C = % of evidence; D = summary code.
  2. Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.
  3. M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females; 1 = specific results for 1st subgroup; 2 = specific results for 2nd subgroup; n = specific results for nth subgroup.