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Table 2 Mortality risk (1999–2008) associated with health behaviors and health behavior combinations measured in 1998 a

From: A prospective cohort study of health behavior profiles after age 50 and mortality risk

  Full sample Ages 51--65 Ages 66+
  HR (99% CI)
Individual behaviors
Current smoker 1.9 *** (1.7, 2.1) 2.1 *** (1.8, 2.5) 1.8 *** (1.6, 2.0)
Inactive 1.4 *** (1.3, 1.5) 1.4 *** (1.2, 1.7) 1.4 *** (1.3, 1.5)
Alcohol use          
-Moderate 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
-Abstain 1.3 *** (1.2, 1.4) 1.3 *** (1.0, 1.6) 1.3 *** (1.1, 1.4)
-Heavy 1.3 *** (1.1, 1.5) 1.3 ** (1.0, 1.7) 1.2 ** (1.0, 1.5)
Health behavior profiles
Non-smokers          
Active, moderate drinker 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
Active, non-drinker 1.4 *** (1.1, 1.6) 1.4 * (0.9, 2.1) 1.3 *** (1.1, 1.6)
Active, heavy drinker 1.0   (0.7, 1.3) 1.0   (0.5, 2.0) 1.0   (0.7, 1.4)
Inactive, moderate drinker 1.5 *** (1.2, 1.8) 1.8 *** (1.1, 2.9) 1.4 *** (1.1, 1.8)
Inactive, non-drinker 1.9 *** (1.6, 2.2) 2.3 *** (1.6, 3.4) 1.8 *** (1.5, 2.2)
Inactive, heavy drinker 1.7 *** (1.3, 2.2) 1.7 * (1.0, 3.0) 1.7 *** (1.3, 2.3)
Smokers          
Active, moderate drinker 1.9 *** (1.2, 2.9) 2.7 *** (1.4, 5.1) 1.7 * (0.9, 3.1)
Active, non-drinker 2.7 *** (2.1, 3.4) 3.4 *** (2.2, 5.4) 2.4 *** (1.7, 3.4)
Active, heavy drinker 3.4 *** (2.4, 4.8) 5.0 *** (3.0, 8.4) 2.6 *** (1.5, 4.6)
Inactive, moderate drinker 2.7 *** (2.0, 3.6) 3.5 *** (2.1, 5.9) 2.4 *** (1.6, 35)
Inactive, non-drinker 3.2 *** (2.6, 3.9) 3.9 *** (2.6, 5.9) 3.0 *** (2.3, 3.8)
Inactive, heavy drinker 4.2 *** (3.1, 5.6) 4.8 *** (3.0, 7.8) 4.1 *** (2.8, 6.1)
  1. *P ≤ .05; ** P ≤ .01; *** P ≤ .001.
  2. aModels adjusted for the following in 1998: age, gender, marital status, race, education, household income, self-rated health, 5 serious chronic diseases, functional limitations, and body mass index.