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Table 3 Mean, SD, skewness, Cronbach's alpha and correlations for the scales

From: Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust

     Cronbach’s     
  Scales Mean SD Skewness alpha 1 2 3 4
Individual level (N = 1008)         
Leader evaluation         
1 Social support 3.38 1.24 −0.44 0.94     
2 Task monitoring 3.05 1.04 −0.13 0.89 0.67**    
3 Negative leader behavior 1.74 0.81 1.40 0.92 −0.58** −0.38**   
4 Problem confrontation 3.62 1.11 −0.67 0.93 0.72** 0.68** −0.59**  
5 Loyalty to superiors 4.14 0.77 −0.97 0.73 0.38** 0.35** −0.35** 0.46**
Department level (N = 35)         
Leader evaluation         
1 Social support 3.39 .46 -.28      
2 Task monitoring 3.15 .44 .48   0.73**    
3 Negative leader behavior 1.71 .40 2.04   −0.51** −0.31   
4 Problem confrontation 3.69 .48 -.70   0.75** 0.75** −0.53**  
5 Loyalty to superiors 4.03 .34 −1.35   0.34* 0.33 −0.33 0.39*
Sickness absence         
 Time 1 6.37 3.80 .23      
 Time 2 6.77 3.96 .33      
  1. Note. All variables are measured using a 5-point Likert scale. * p <0.05 ** p < 0.01.