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Table 4 Characteristics of included controlled trials

From: Pre-pregnancy care for women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study/ Year of Publication
Reference (country)
Participants Intervention Outcome Risk of Bias/Note
Pregnancy outcome in Diabetes control and complication trial research group 1996[11] (USA) 187 had pre-pregnancy intensive insulin therapy and 83 did not. PPC included glycemic control and dietary advice. There was one still birth in the PPC group and 3 in the NPPC. Congenital malformations were 5 in the PPC group and 4 in the
NPPC group. Mean HbA1C in PPC group was7.4 ± 1.3 compared to 8.8 ± 1.7 in the NPPC group.
High (Unclear report of the outcome, the control group was aware of the importance of glycemic control and was repeatedly advised to change into intensive therapy when planning pregnancy. So intervention was not restricted to the pre-pregnancy group. No specific target level of the blood sugar was stated for the pre-pregnancy group)
  1. Key: HbA1C = Glycosylated Hemoglobin A, PPC = Pre-pregnancy Care, NPPC = No Pre-pregnancy Care.