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Table 4 Baseline characteristics of study participants by need level and randomization group

From: Ending homelessness among people with mental illness: the At Home/Chez Soi randomized trial of a Housing First intervention in Toronto

  Total sample1 (N=575) Moderate needs2 (N=378) High needs2 (N=197)
   Control (N=174) Treatment (N=204)   Control (N=100) Treatment (N=97)  
  Mean ± SD or N (%) Missing N (% of 575)   Mean ± SD or N (%) P value   Mean ± SD or N (%) P value
Demgraphics
Age   0 (0.0)    0.861    0.340
  <30 138 (24.0)   41 (23.6) 51 (25.0)   19 (19.0) 27 (27.8)  
  30-39 134 (23.3)   41 (23.6) 47 (23.0)   22 (22.0) 24 (24.7)  
  40-49 183 (31.8)   53 (30.5) 67 (32.8)   34 (34.0) 29 (29.9)  
  ≥50 120 (20.9)   39 (22.4) 39 (19.1)   25 (25.0) 17 (17.5)  
Gender   0 (0.0)    0.059    0.075
  Female 170 (29.6)   54 (31.0) 65 (31.9)   19 (19.0) 32 (33.0)  
  Male 394 (68.5)   113 (64.9) 138 (67.6)   79 (79.0) 64 (66.0)  
  Other3 11 (1.9)   7 (4.0) 1 (0.5)   2 (2.0) 1 (1.0)  
Country of birth   1 (0.2)    0.668    0.610
  Canada 312 (54.3)   90 (51.7) 101 (49.5)   60 (60.0) 61 (63.5)  
  Other 262 (45.6)   84 (48.3) 103 (50.5)   40 (40.0) 35 (36.5)  
Native language   0 (0.0)    0.301    0.145
  English 369 (64.2)   104 (59.8) 123 (60.3)   69 (69.0) 73 (75.3)  
  French 17 (3.0)   3 (1.7) 9 (4.4)   1 (1.0) 4 (4.1)  
  Other 189 (32.9)   67 (38.5) 72 (35.3)   30 (30.0) 20 (20.6)  
Ethnic or cultural identity   0 (0.0)    0.265    0.361
  Aboriginal 28 (4.9)   8 (4.6) 10 (4.9)   3 (3.0) 7 (7.2)  
  Ethno-racial4 338 (58.8)   102 (58.6) 135 (66.2)   54 (54.0) 47 (48.5)  
  Non ethno-racial5 209 (36.3)   64 (36.8) 59 (28.9)   43 (43.0) 43 (44.3)  
Marital status   3 (0.5)    0.943    0.650
  Divorced/separated/widowed 152 (26.4)   51 (29.3) 57 (28.1)   25 (25.0) 19 (20.0)  
  Married/cohabitating   with partner 21 (3.7)   6 (3.4) 8 (3.9)   4 (4.0) 3 (3.2)  
Single, never married 399 (69.4)   117 (67.2) 138 (68.0)   71 (71.0) 73 (76.8)  
Number of children   8 (1.4)    0.260    0.105
  0 410 (71.3)   125 (72.7) 139 (68.1)   74 (77.1) 72 (75.8)  
  1 80 (13.9)   23 (13.4) 38 (18.6)   8 (8.3) 11 (11.6)  
  2 55 (9.6)   18 (10.5) 15 (7.4)   14 (14.6) 8 (8.4)  
  ≥3 22 (3.8)   6 (3.5) 12 (5.9)   0 (0.0) 4 (4.2)  
Homelessness
Current status   0 (0.0)    0.633    0.284
  Absolutely homeless 535 (93.0)   161 (92.5) 186 (91.2)   97 (97.0) 91 (93.8)  
  Precariously housed 40 (7.0)   13 (7.5) 18 (8.8)   3 (3.0) 6 (6.2) 0.207
Total length of homelessness During lifetime (years) 5.25 ± 6.19 13 (2.3) 4.86 ± 5.82 4.56 ± 5.63 0.599 7.13 ± 7.34 5.57 ± 6.42 0.122
Longest period of homelessness (years) 2.92 ± 4.54 8 (1.4) 2.58 ± 3.61 2.50 ± 4.12 0.855 4.07 ± 5.81 3.29 ± 5.27 0.388
Education and employment
Education history   2 (0.3)    0.346    0.273
  < High school 279 (48.5)   75 (43.4) 103 (50.5)   53 (53.5) 48 (49.5)  
  Completed high school 108 (18.8)   36 (20.8) 34 (16.7)   22 (22.2) 16 (16.5)  
  Some post-secondary school 186 (32.3)   62 (35.8) 67 (32.8)   24 (24.2) 33 (34.0)  
Employment status   2 (0.3)    0.924    0.975
  Unemployed 549 (95.5)   165 (94.8) 193 (94.6)   97 (98.0) 94 (97.9)  
  Employed 24 (4.2)   9 (5.2) 11 (5.4)   2 (2.0) 2 (2.1)  
Mental health
MCAS   0 (0.0)    0.224    0.931
  More disability (17-47) 29 (5.0)   0 (0.0) 1 (0.5)   14 (14.0) 14 (14.4)  
  Some disability (48-62) 192 (33.4)   14 (8.0) 9 (4.4)   86 (86.0) 83 (85.6)  
  Mild disability (63-85) 354 (61.6)   160 (92.0) 194 (95.1)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Documented health record of a mental disorder 161 (28.0) 9 (1.6) 36 (20.7) 44 (22.1) 0.739 44 (44.4) 37 (39.4) 0.475
MINI Results   0 (0.0)       
  Current depressive episode 206 (35.8)   79 (45.4) 92 (45.1) 0.953 18 (18.0) 17 (17.5) 0.931
  Current manic   Episode or hypomanic episode 61 (10.6)   16 (9.2) 25 (12.3) 0.340 7 (7.0) 13 (13.4) 0.137
  Current PTSD 134 (23.3)   48 (27.6) 61 (29.9) 0.620 11 (11.0) 14 (14.4) 0.469
  Current panic disorder 81 (14.1)   34 (19.5) 38 (18.6) 0.822 3 (3.0) 6 (6.2) 0.284
  Current mood disorder   with psychotic features 119 (20.7)   33 (19.0) 38 (18.6) 0.933 25 (25.0) 23 (23.7) 0.833
  Current psychotic disorder 215 (37.4)   44 (25.3) 55 (27.0) 0.712 60 (60.0) 56 (57.7) 0.746
  Current alcohol dependence 166 (28.9)   57 (32.8) 48 (23.5) 0.046 30 (30.0) 31 (32.0) 0.766
  Current substance dependence 218 (37.9)   69 (39.7) 74 (36.3) 0.499 32 (32.0) 43 (44.3) 0.075
  Current alcohol abuse 80 (13.9)   17 (9.8) 30 (14.7) 0.147 16 (16.0) 17 (17.5) 0.774
  Current substance abuse 52 (9.0)   13 (7.5) 19 (9.3) 0.521 8 (8.0) 12 (12.4) 0.310
  Current suicidality      0.127    0.589
   Low 203 (35.3)   64 (36.8) 73 (35.8)   38 (38.0) 28 (28.9)  
   Moderate 112 (19.5)   47 (27.0) 37 (18.1)   13 (13.0) 15 (15.5)  
   High 60 (10.4)   15 (8.6) 25 (12.3)   9 (9.0) 11 (11.3)  
Functional and cognitive impairment
Cognitive impairment         
  Was in special class in school 170 (29.6) 18 (3.1) 48 (28.1) 58 (29.3) 0.796 30 (30.6) 34 (37.8) 0.300
  Received extra help   with learning in school 196 (34.1) 18 (3.1) 63 (36.8) 62 (31.3) 0.263 33 (34.0) 38 (41.8) 0.274
  Thinks that has learning   problem/disability 207 (36.0) 22 (3.8) 70 (41.4) 62 (31.3) 0.044 37 (39.4) 38 (41.3) 0.787
  Was told have learning   problem/disability 180 (31.3) 19 (3.3) 56 (33.3) 57 (28.6) 0.332 33 (34.4) 34 (36.6) 0.754
  Functional Impairment         
  Needs assistance to meet   nutritional needs 101 (17.6) 1 (0.2) 21 (12.1) 30 (14.8) 0.443 20 (20.0) 30 (30.9) 0.078
  Needs assistance to maintain   adequate personal hygiene 129 (22.4) 0 (0.0) 23 (13.2) 25 (12.3) 0.779 42 (42.0) 39 (40.2) 0.798
  Needs assistance/unwilling to   access needed resources 413 (71.8) 1 (0.2) 110 (63.2) 141 (69.5) 0.200 79 (79.0) 83 (85.6) 0.228
  Needs assistance to   manage finances 425 (73.9) 2 (0.3) 126 (72.4) 136 (67.0) 0.255 79 (79.8) 84 (86.6) 0.203
  Needs assistance to acquire   and maintain social network 455 (79.1) 0 (0.0) 127 (73.0) 163 (79.9) 0.113 85 (85.0) 80 (82.5) 0.631
Referral sources   0 (0.0)    0.309    0.112
Community health centres 5 (1.0)   2 (1.1) 1(0.5)   2 (2.0) 0 (0.0)  
CMHA (Canadian Mental Health Association) 31 (5.4)   10 (5.7) 7 (3.4)   5 (5.0) 9 (9.3)  
Drop-ins 67 (11.7)   21 (12.1) 26 (12.7)   12 (12.0) 8 (8.2)  
Hospitals 80 (13.9)   12 (6.9) 21 (10.3)   25 (25.0) 22 (22.7)  
Social supports programs and justice systems6 25 (4.3)   6 (3.4) 11 (5.4)   2 (2.0) 6 (6.2)  
Mental health services 45 (7.8)   10 (5.7) 24 (11.8)   8 (8.0) 3 (3.1)  
Other7 27 (4.7)   9 (5.2) 12 (5.9)   5 (5.0) 1 (1.0)  
Outreach programs 57 (9.9)   15 (8.6) 17 (8.3)   9 (9.0) 16 (16.5)  
Shelters 238 (41.4)   89 (51.1) 85 (41.7)   32 (32.0) 32 (33.0)  
  1. 1 For the total sample, percentages shown were calculated as proportion of the total sample (N = 575) and therefore the column totals for each variables will not add up to 100% if data was missing (see adjacent column with N and % Missing in total sample).
  2. 2 For calculation of the moderate needs and high needs group values, percentages are calculated out of the total available data (excluding missing), therefore column totals for each variables add up to 100%. However, questions with “yes/no” answers, only the proportion of individuals who indicated “yes” are provided)
  3. 3 “Other” category includes individuals who identify as Transgendered, Transsexual or Other.
  4. 4 “Ethno-racial” includes participants who indicated the following ethnicities: Black (includes Black-Africa, Black-Caribbean, and Black-Canada), East Asian, Indian-Caribbean, Latin American, Middle Eastern, South Asian, South-East Asian and Mixed Ethnicity.
  5. 5 The “Non Ethno-Racial” category includes participants who indicated the following ethnicities: White-Canada, White-Europe and Other.
  6. 6 This category includes Ontario Works and Ontario Disability Support Program (both provincial social support programs) as well as various justice system referrals (including jails, bail programs, and probation and parole offices).
  7. 7 The “Other” category includes the City of Toronto Assessment and Referral Centre (ARC), Aboriginal Legal Services, hospitals outside of the city of Toronto, self-referrals and any other agencies who did not clearly fit into any of the other categories.