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Table 2 Characteristics and details of intervention groups

From: Ending homelessness among people with mental illness: the At Home/Chez Soi randomized trial of a Housing First intervention in Toronto

Needs level Moderate needs High needs
Treatment acronym ICM ER-ICM ACT
Treatment name Intensive Case Management Ethno-Racial Intensive Case Management Assertive Case Management
Rent allowance# $600 $600 $600
Service team Intensive case management (ICM) Intensive case management (ICM) with focus on ethno-racial diversity Assertive community treatment (ACT)
Name of service team Toronto North Support Services Across Boundaries COTA Health
Participant/staff ratio 20:1 20:1 10:1
Availability to participant 5 days/week; 8 hours/day 7 days/week; 12 hours/day 7 days/week; 24 hours/day
Location of service In the community In the community In the community
Services provided ▪ Participants are matched to a Case Manager who works with the participant to develop a service plan ▪ Same as the regular ICM services with the addition of services oriented towards the ethno-racial population ▪ Participants have access to entire ACT team, which will include a psychiatrist and nurse
▪ Focus is on independent living and providing supports that increase personal independence over time ▪ This service provider takes a more holistic approach to mental health care that recognizes spiritual, emotion, mental, physical, social, economic, cultural, linguistic and broader environmental aspects of life including social determinants of health ▪ ACT team provides all of the relevant services, including case management, initial/ongoing assessment, psychiatric services, employment and housing assistance, family support and education, substance use services and other services and support to allow the individual to live successfully in the community
▪ Case manger will accompanies participant to appointments (with psychiatrist/social workers, etc.) ▪ Main goal of model is to assist participants to help build support network, including with family and friends  
Additional services   ▪ Programs and initiatives that are available to participants:  
– integrative peer support
– skills building
– social and recreational activities
– support groups, alternative and complementary therapies (including art and music therapy)
– creative expressions
– community kitchen and
– individual and community outreach
Crisis support services Yes Yes Yes
Non-English services1 No Yes No
Length of treatment Minimum 1 year Minimum 1 year Minimum 1 year
  1. 1Services are provided in languages other than English.