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Table 2 Oaxaca Multivariate Decomposition of Language-related Disparities in the Presence of Type-2 Diabetes and Its Ocular Complications

From: Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

  Presence of Type-2 Diabetes Presence of DR among those with diabetes Presence of VTDR among those with diabetes Presence of VI among those with diabetes
  Prediction (95%CI) Prediction (95%CI) Prediction (95%CI) Prediction (95%CI)
Prevalence in English-speaking Indians 35.0% (33.0 to 36.9%) 30.1% (26.8 to 33.3%) 6.3% (4.6 to 8.0%) 16.7% (14.1 to 19.4%)
Prevalence in Tamil-speaking Indians 46.5% (43.2 to 49.9%) 36.1% (31.3 to 41.0%) 11.1% (8.1 to 14.2%) 33.7% (28.8 to 38.4%)
Difference −11.6% (−15.5 to −7.6%) −6.1% (−11.9 to −0.3%) −4.9% (−8.4 to −1.3%) −17.0% (−22.4 to −11.4%)
  Explained −8.4% (−11.3 to −5.7%) −3.1% (−7.1 to −1.0%) −1.2% (−3.3 to −0.9%) −8.3% (−12.2 to −5.1%)
  Unexplained −3.2% (−7.7 to −1.4%) −3.0% (−9.2 to −3.2%) −3.7% (−7.5 to −0.2%) −8.7% (−14.7 to −1.8%)
Contribution of separate factors in explaining the explained proportion
Demographic factors     
  Age (year) −3.4% (−5.1 to −1.6%) 7.3% (2.2 to 12.3%) 2.6% (0.06 to 5.3%) −4.0% (−6.9 to −0.9%)
  Gender (female vs. male) 1.9% (0.9 to 2.9%) 3.7% (1.0 to 6.3%) 0.9% (−0.3 to 2.1%) 1.2% (−1.2 to 3.0%)
Systemic biological factors     
  BMI (kg/m2) −0.6% (−1.2 to 0.03%) 0.01% (−0.3 to 0.4%) 0.01% (−0.1 to 0.1%) 0.01% (−0.2 to 0.2%)
  SBP (mmHg) −3.5% (−4.7 to −2.2%) −3.1% (−5.1 to −1.1%) −0.6% (−1.4 to 0.1%) −0.2% (−0.7 to 1.3%)
  DBP (mmHg) −0.8% (−1.4 to −0.2%) −1.5% (−2.8 to −0.2%) −0.5% (−1.1 to 0.1%) −0.5% (−1.1 to 0.4%)
  HDL (mmol/l) 0.3% (−0.02 to 0.6%) −0.6% (−1.4 to 0.2%) −0.1% (−0.5 to 0.2%) −0.6% (−1.2 to 0.1%)
  LDL (mmol/l) −1.4% (−2.2 to −0.6%) −0.4% (−1.0 to 0.2%) 0.1% (−0.2 to 0.2%) 0.3% (−0.2 to 0.8%)
  Triglyceride (mmol/l) 0.7% (0.2 to 1.1%) −0.1% (−0.9 to 0.7%) 0.1% (−0.4 to 0.5%) 0.2% (−0.4 to 0.9%)
  Hba1c (%) - 0.9% (−0.3 to 2.2%) 0.2% (−0.01 to 0.6%) 0.2% (−0.1 to 0.7%)
  Duration of diabetes (year) - −5.1% (−7.5 to −2.7%) −1.7% (−3.1 to −0.3%) −0.5% (−1.2 to 0.2%)
Health related behaviors     
  Smoking −0.3% (−0.6 to 0.04%) −0.2% (−0.5 to 0.2%) −0.1% (−0.4 to 0.1) 0.01% (−0.2 to 0.3%)
  Alcohol −0.01% (−1.2 to 1.0%) 0.2% (−0.6 to 1.1%) −0.1% (−0.4 to 0.2) −0.3% (−0.9 to 0.5%)
Acculturation factors     
  Country of birth 2.1% (0.4 to 3.7%) −0.5% (−2.5 to 1.4%) 0.1% (−0.9 to 0.9%) −0.1% (−2.6 to 1.1%)
  Duration of residency (year) −1.9% (−4.0 to 0.01%) −0.3% (−1.3 to 0.8%) 0.1% (−0.4 to 0.6%) −0.2% (−1.1 to 0.7%)
Socioeconomic factors     
  Reading literacy 0.4% (−0.4 to 1.4%) −0.9% (−2.5 to 0.7%) −0.2% (−0.7 to 0.6%) −2.0% (−3.3 to −0.7%)
  Education −0.9% (−2.5 to 1.0%) 1.3% (−1.7 to 4.3%) 0.3% (−1.1 to 1.9%) −1.1% (−4.0 to 1.3%)
  Income −0.4% (−2.0 to 0.9%) −2.2% (−4.7 to −0.2%) −1.4% (−3.0 to −0.2%) −0.6% (−5.8 to −0.1%)
  Housing type −0.5% (−1.3 to 0.4%) −1.7% (−3.2 to −0.01%) −1.0% (−1.8 to −0.2%) −0.3% (−2.2 to 0.7%)
  1. 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; DR = diabetic retinopathy; VTDR = vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy; VI = visual impairment; BMI = body mass index; SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; Hba1c = hemoglobin A1C. Bold font highlights statistical significance (P < 0.05). Smoking category: 0 = current; 1 = never; Alcohol category: 0 = current; 1 = never; Country of birth category: 0 = foreign-born, 1 = Singapore-born; Reading literacy category” 0 = adequate, 1 = inadequate; Education category: 0 = secondary education or higher, 1 = formal education or lower; Income category: 0 = lower than SGD$1,000, 1 = SGD$1,000 or more; Housing type category: 0 = 5-room flat or bigger, 1 = 4-room flat or smaller.