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Table 5 Associations between whether helmet was worn and trip or personal characteristics, variables retained in adjusted analysis only, each variable on its own (unadjusted) and in multiple logistic regression (adjusted)

From: Personal and trip characteristics associated with safety equipment use by injured adult bicyclists: a cross-sectional study

  Helmet worn   
  Yes/No (% Yes/% No)* Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
City     
 Vancouver 315/99 (76/24) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Toronto 163/113 (59/41) 0.46 (0.33 – 0.64) 0.38 (0.25 – 0.57)
Bike light turned on during trip
 No 376/179 (68/32) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 102/33 (76/24) 1.45 (0.93 – 2.25) 2.02 (1.17 – 3.50)
Trip distance
 < 2 km 147/102 (59/41) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 2 - < 5 km 158/63 (71/29) 1.63 (1.10 – 2.41) 1.67 (1.05 – 2.65)
 5 - < 10 km 106/32 (77/23) 2.14 (1.34 – 3.44) 1.67 (0.96 – 2.89)
 10 - < 20 km 36/12 (75/25) 1.91 (0.94 – 3.85) 1.47 (0.65 – 3.34)
 ≥ 20 km 31/3 (91/9) 6.75 (2.01 – 22.7) 5.43 (1.42 – 20.8)
Bike type used on trip
 Mountain bike 139/67 (67/23) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 City bike 17/12 (59/41) 0.66 (0.30 – 1.46) 0.82 (0.33 – 2.05)
 Touring/road bike 98/46 (68/32) 1.01 (0.64 – 1.61) 1.11 (0.65 – 1.90)
 Racing bike 50/16 (76/24) 1.45 (0.77 – 2.73) 1.22 (0.58 – 2.58)
 Folding bike 7/5 (58/42) 0.65 (0.19 – 2.12) 0.84 (0.20 – 3.44)
 Hybrid 152/28 (84/16) 2.58 (1.55 – 4.27) 2.08 (1.18 – 3.68)
 Cruiser 6/17 (26/74) 0.17 (0.07 – 0.47) 0.15 (0.05 – 0.46)
 BMX bike 1/6 (14/86) 0.07 (0.01 – 0.66) 0.15 (0.02 – 1.40)
 Fixed gear 8/15 (35/65) 0.25 (0.10 – 0.61) 0.42 (0.16 – 1.16)
Alcohol used in 6 hours prior to trip
 No 442/175 (72/28) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 36/37 (49/51) 0.39 (0.24 – 0.64) 0.42 (0.23 – 0.78)
Sex
 Male 272/138 (66/34) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Female 206/74 (74/26) 1.33 (0.95 – 1.87) 1.62 (1.06 – 2.48)
Age
 19 - 29 160/103 (61/39) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 30 - 39 114/54 (68/32) 1.33 (0.88 – 2.01) 0.98 (0.59 – 1.63)
 40 - 49 90/27 (77/23) 2.14 (1.29 – 3.53) 1.27 (0.67 – 2.40)
 50 - 59 69/14 (83/17) 3.04 (1.62 – 5.68) 2.45 (1.12 – 5.35)
 ≥ 60 44/12 (79/21) 2.24 (1.27 – 4.45) 1.35 (0.58 – 3.17)
Income     
 < $15,000 30/36 (45/55) 0.44 (0.24 – 0.81) 0.45 (0.22 – 0.92)
 $15,000 - 29,999 50/33 (60/40) 0.75 (0.42 – 1.33) 0.94 (0.48 – 1.83)
 $30,000 - 49,999 83/37 (69/31) 1.13 (0.66 – 1.92) 1.12 (0.61 – 2.07)
 $50,000 - 79,999 88/45 (69/31) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 $80,000 - 119,999 80/19 (81/19) 2.11 (1.14 – 3.90) 1.67 (0.84 – 3.35)
 ≥ $120,000 97/12 (89/11) 4.00 (1.99 – 8.06) 2.28 (1.03 – 5.07)
 DK/Refuse 50/30 (63/37) 0.89 (0.50 – 1.61) 0.84 (0.42 – 1.71)
Education
 Some high school 7/6 (54/46) 0.43 (0.13 – 1.42) 0.42 (0.11 – 1.70)
 Completed high school 19/21 (48/52) 0.30 (0.15 – 0.59) 0.30 (0.13 – 0.68)
 Some post-secondary  education 71/48 (60/40) 0.47 (0.29 – 0.76) 0.61 (0.35 – 1.06)
 Completed college/ technical diploma 68/57 (54/46) 0.38 (0.24 – 0.61) 0.43 (0.25 – 0.74)
 Completed university degree 190/59 (76/24) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Completed graduate degree 123/21 (85/15) 1.80 (1.04 – 3.12) 1.29 (0.70 – 2.40)
  1. Significant associations in bold.
  2. * Row percent.