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Table 4 Multilevel regression analysis for male students' time spent in PA (n = 10973)

From: A multilevel examination of gender differences in the association between features of the school environment and physical activity among a sample of grades 9 to 12 students in Ontario, Canada

Characteristics   Student Variables Student and School Social Environment Variables Student, School Social Environment, and School Built Environment Variables Student, School Social Environment, and School & Neighbourhood Built Environment Variables Student, School Social Environment, School & Neighbourhood Built Environment Variables, and School Demographics
   β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE) β (SE)
Individual-level       
Grade 9 REF REF REF REF REF
  10 -4.64 (2.46) -4.63 (2.46) -4.69 (2.46) -4.64 (2.46) -4.67 (2.46)
  11 -10.60 (2.54)c -10.61 (2.54)c -10.63 (2.54)c -10.61 (2.54)c -10.59 (2.54)c
  12 -19.96 (2.59)c -20.00 (2.59)c -20.02 (2.59)c -20.02 (2.59)c -19.86 (2.59)c
Weight status Healthy weight REF REF REF REF REF
  Underweight 4.20 (7.02) 4.26 (7.02) 4.33 (7.02) 4.32 (7.02) 4.38 (7.02)
  Overweight -3.70 (2.26) -3.71 (2.26) -3.71 (2.26) -3.71 (2.26) -3.74 (2.26)
  Obese -8.73 (3.29)c -8.72 (3.29)b -8.77 (3.29)b -8.78 (3.29)b -8.63 (3.29)b
Mode of transport to school Non-active REF REF REF REF REF
  Active 11.48 (2.29)c 11.39 (2.29)c 11.46 (2.29)c 11.70 (2.29)c 11.69 (2.37)c
  Mixed 6.20 (2.36)b 6.12 (2.36)b 6.18 (2.35)b 6.37 (2.36)b 6.41 (2.36)b
Enrolled in PE No REF REF REF REF REF
  Yes 19.80 (1.97)c 19.76 (1.97)c 19.78 (1.97)c 19.76 (1.97)c 19.83 (1.97)c
Participation in school intramurals No REF REF REF REF REF
  Yes 23.80 (2.28)c 23.77 (2.28)c 23.81 (2.28)c 23.79 (2.23)c 23.78 (2.28)c
Participation in school varsity teams No REF REF REF REF REF
  Yes 12.38 (2.23)c 12.39 (2.23)c 12.41 (2.23)c 12.41 (2.23)c 12.36 (2.23)c
Engaging in flexibility activities < 3 days/week REF REF REF REF REF
  ≥ 3 days/week 23.10 (1.99)c 23.10 (1.99)c 23.13 (1.99)c 23.11 (1.99)c 23.18 (1.99)c
Engaging in strength activities < 3 days/week REF REF REF REF REF
  ≥ 3 days/week 33.84 (2.21)c 33.87 (2.21)c 33.84 (2.21)c 33.85 (2.21)c 33.83 (2.21)c
Environment-level
Offering daily PE No   REF REF REF REF
  Yes   9.28 (4.91) 9.52 (4.77)a 9.19 (4.72) 7.65 (4.50)
Other room for PA No    REF REF REF
  Yes    11.66 (5.55)a 10.47 (5.54) 13.32 (5.21)b
Street connectivity      -0.04 (0.03) -0.03 (0.03)
-2LLd   130638 130626 130616 130619 130579
  1. Note: a p < 0.05; b p < 0.01, c p < 0.001, d-2LL: -2 Log Likelihood (smaller is better fit); Controlling for potential school-level confounders: area-level SES, school location (rural, suburban, urban), and season of data collection (winter, fall, spring)
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