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Table 1 Distribution of participants, cumulative incidence of disability pension (DP) and unadjusted risk of DP by covariates

From: Women’s higher likelihood of disability pension: the role of health, family and work. A 5–7 years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study

  Distribution Disability pension
Men Women   Men Women
  n % n % p-value* n % HR 95% CI n % HR 95% CI
Gender 5959   6306    99 1.7    230 3.6   
Married      0.269         
Yes 4481 75.2 4796 76.1   62 1.4 1.00   169 3.5 1.00  
No 1478 24.8 1510 23.9   37 2.5 1.85 1.23–2.78 61 4.0 1.18 0.88–1.59
Ever divorced      0.000         
No 5487 92.1 5619 89.1   83 1.5 1.00   196 3.5 1.00  
Yes 472 7.9 687 10.9   16 3.4 2.31 1.35–3.94 34 4.9 1.47 1.02–2.11
Living with children < 18 years      0.206         
Yes 4508 75.7 4604 73.0   66 1.5 1.00   146 3.2 1.00  
No 1068 17.9 1158 18.4   22 2.1 1.43 0.88–2.32 58 5.0 1.63 1.20–2.21
Spouse receive social benefit      0.000         
No 5412 90.8 5940 94.2   84 1.6 1.00   210 3.5 1.00  
Yes 547 9.2 366 5.8   15 2.7 1.77 1.02–3.06 20 5.5 1.54 0.98–2.44
Educational level      0.000         
University/college 2402 40.3 2353 37.3   26 1.1 1.00   48 2.0 1.00  
Vocational/higher secondary 2750 46.1 2874 45.6   47 1.7 1.55 0.96–2.50 106 3.7 1.80 1.28–2.53
Primary/lower secondary 807 13.5 1079 17.1   26 3.2 2.94 1.71–5.06 76 7.0 3.47 2.41–4.98
Occupational class      0.000         
Administrative/professional 2908 48.8 1481 23.5   33 1.1 1.00   27 1.8 1.00  
Routine non-manual 906 15.2 3128 49.6   10 1.1 0.97 0.48–1.97 102 3.3 1.77 1.16–2.71
Manual 2010 33.7 1555 24.7   52 2.6 2.25 1.46–3.49 94 6.0 3.30 2.15–5.06
Working hours per week      0.000         
≥37 hours 5174 86.8 2888 45.8   77 1.5 1.00   90 3.1 1.00  
27-36 hours 549 9.2 1769 28.1   11 2.0 1.33 0.71–2.50 55 3.1 0.98 0.70–1.37
<27 hours 102 1.7 1463 23.2   5 4.9 3.38 1.37–8.37 78 5.3 1.69 1.25–2.29
Self-perceived mental health      0.000         
Quartile 1 (good) 1626 27.3 1338 21.2   14 0.9 1.00   54 4.0 1.00  
Quartile 2 1640 27.5 1636 25.9   14 0.9 0.99 0.47–2.09 47 2.9 0.71 0.48–1.04
Quartile 3 1351 22.7 1501 23.8   20 1.5 1.73 0.87–3.42 35 2.3 0.57 0.37–0.88
Quartile 4 (poorest) 1342 22.5 1831 29.0   51 3.8 4.50 2.49–8.14 94 5.1 1.28 0.91–1.79
Self-perceived physical health      0.000         
Quartile 1 (good) 1530 25.7 1641 26.0   6 0.4 1.00   18 1.1 1.00  
Quartile 2 1483 24.9 1478 23.4   7 0.5 1.20 0.40–3.56 21 1.4 1.28 0.68–2.40
Quartile 3 1669 28.0 1410 22.4   20 1.2 3.03 1.22–7.55 30 2.1 1.92 1.07–3.44
Quartile 4 (poorest) 1277 21.4 1777 28.2   66 5.2 13.37 5.80–30.84 161 9.1 8.59 5.28–13.99
  1. 2 for gender differences in distribution of participants.
  2. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from univariate Cox regression analyses.