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Table 2 Maternal and infant predictors of presentation to metropolitan emergency departments with ALRI in children aged <5 years

From: Can linked emergency department data help assess the out-of-hospital burden of acute lower respiratory infections? A population-based cohort study

Risk factor Aboriginal   Non-Aboriginal  
OR (95% CI) PAF (95% CI) OR (95% CI) PAF (95% CI)
Male 1.57 (1.32, 1.86) 18.8 (11.5, 25.4) 1.53 (1.46, 1.60) 19.5 (17.5, 21.5)
Gestational age <36 weeks 1.26 (0.99, 1.62) 2.5 (−0.3, 5.2) 1.62 (1.50, 1.75) 3.4 (2.8, 4.0)
Maternal smoking* 0.98 (0.83, 1.17) - 1.15 (1.08, 1.21) 2.4 (1.4, 3.4)
Maternal asthma* 0.96 (0.75, 1.23) - 1.38 (1.29, 1.47) 3.6 (2.8, 4.4)
Percent optimal birthweight     
Low <85% 0.95 (0.77, 1.18) - 1.00 (0.93, 1.07) -
Normal 85-114% Reference   Reference  
High ≥115% 1.10 (0.81, 1.50) 0.6 (−1.5, 2.7) 1.07 (1.00, 1.15) 0.7 (−0.01, 1.4)
Previous pregnancies     
0 Reference   Reference  
1 0.97 (0.75, 1.27) - 1.13 (1.07, 1.20) 3.3 (1.8, 4.9)
2 1.00 (0.74, 1.38) 0.1 (−3.7, 3.8) 1.30 (1.22, 1.39) 4.3 (3.2, 5.4)
≥3 1.29 (0.97, 1.71) 7.7 (−1.0, 15.7) 1.38 (1.28, 1.47) 5.4 (4.3, 6.6)
Season of birth     
Spring Reference   Reference  
Summer 1.14 (0.90, 1.45) 2.6 (−2.2, 7.2) 1.13 (1.06, 1.20) 2.7 (1.3, 4.0)
Autumn 1.10 (0.87, 1.40) 2.0 (−2.9, 6.6) 1.23 (1.16, 1.31) 4.7 (3.4, 6.1)
Winter 1.08 (0.85, 1.38) 1.5 (−3.1, 6.0) 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) 2.0 (0.7, 3.3)
Mode of delivery     
Vaginal Reference   Reference  
Instrumental 1.01 (0.71, 1.43) 0.05 (−1.9, 2.0) 1.01 (0.94, 1.08) 0.08 (−0.7, 0.9)
Elective caesarean 1.15 (0.85, 1.55) 1.0 (−1.3, 3.2) 1.25 (1.18, 1.32) 3.4 (2.4, 4.3)
Emergency caesarean 1.18 (0.92, 1.50) 1.9 (−1.1, 4.8) 1.12 (1.05, 1.20) 1.4 (0.6, 2.2)
Maternal age     
≥35 years Reference   Reference  
30-34 years 1.09 (0.73, 1.63) 0.9 (−3.4, 5.1) 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) 2.6 (0.9, 4.4)
25-29 years 1.45 (1.00, 2.10) 7.1 (0.2, 13.6) 1.28 (1.19, 1.37) 6.1 (4.4, 7.7)
20-24 years 1.39 (0.95, 2.03) 7.0 (−0.9, 14.4) 1.47 (1.36, 1.59) 5.2 (4.1, 6.3)
<20 years 1.69 (1.10, 2.57) 8.4 (2.1, 14.3) 1.82 (1.62, 2.04) 2.4 (1.9, 2.9)
Socio-economic index†     
91-100% Reference   Reference  
76-90% 0.66 (0.22, 1.98) - 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) 0.2 (−1.1, 1.4)
26-75% 0.92 (0.35, 2.43) - 1.09 (1.01, 1.19) 3.8 (0.5, 7.0)
11-25% 1.27 (0.48, 3.34) 6.3 (−21.1, 27.5) 1.30 (1.19, 1.42) 4.2 (2.8, 5.5)
0-10% 1.01 (0.38, 2.68) 0.3 (−25.8, 21.0) 1.23 (1.11, 1.37) 1.7 (0.8, 2.5)
  1. *During pregnancy. Relative to no maternal smoking/asthma.
  2. †91-100% is least disadvantaged and 0-10% is most disadvantaged.
  3. Based on 4105 Aboriginal and 117,989 non-Aboriginal births.
  4. Adjusted for year of birth. Population attributable fraction was not calculated where OR < 1.