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Table 2 Summary of the surveillance indicators, measures, methods and instruments

From: CARRS Surveillance study: design and methods to assess burdens from multiple perspectives

Indicators Measures Methods Instruments
Demographic and Social Characteristics* Age / Sex / Marital Status / Religion Questionnaires Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS), Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES), Establishment of Sentinel Surveillance System for CVD in Indian Industrial Populations (Sentinel Surveillance Study)
Education / Income / Occupation
Household assets Standard of Living Index (SLI)
Contact Details (and supplemental contacts)  
Behavioral risk factors* Tobacco use Questionnaire / Cotinine in saliva (5 % of participants) CUPS, CURES, Sentinel Surveillance Study
Alcohol use Questionnaire
Dietary habits Questionnaire/ validation by 24-hour dietary recall in a sub-sample INTERHEART Study
Physical activity Questionnaire International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)– short
Sleep Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS)
Physiological and biochemical risk factors** Hypertension Blood pressure measurement Standardized method (American Heart Association) and validated instrument (certified by British Hypertensive Society and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation)
Dyslipidemia Laboratory estimation of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A and B (not done in Karachi) Standardized across all three study sites
Obesity Anthropometry (height / weight / body circumferences / skinfold thickness / body composition/bio-impedance) Standard procedures based on National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey-III with instruments used in epidemiological studies on South Asian population
Diabetes Laboratory estimation of fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) Standardized across all three study sites
Female Reproductive history* Menarche/ gestational history (pregnancy induced hypertension, gestational diabetes), menopause (surgical / physiological / whether on hormone replacement therapy) / contraception Questionnaire CUPS, CURES, India Health Study (IHS)
Quality of Life* Mobility, self care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression (related to cardiometabolic diseases; CMDs and their risk factors) Questionnaire European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D)
Morbidity** Stroke / Myocardial infarction / Congestive heart failure / Chronic stable angina Questionnaires including medication history; Rose Angina, CURES, IHS, Sentinel Surveillance, Community Heart Failure questionnaire
Medical records of documented events or procedures, serum urea and creatinine and albumin for CKD
Chronic kidney disease (CKD)/ Dialysis / Renal transplantation
Amputation/diabetes retinopathy
Procedures, Revascularization, Hospitalization Initiative for Cardiovascular Health Research in the developing countries (IC-Health) macroeconomic study
Treatment history, health services, quality of care and health care costs** Awareness and risk factor control Questionnaire IC-Health macroeconomic study
Access to health care services
Utilization of services
Health insurance / coverage
Costs of treating CMDs and their risk factors
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Asthma* Prevalence of COPD & asthma in the population Questionnaire NHANES III and the present standards of the American Thoracic Society (ATS)
Family history* Prevalence of CMDs and their risk factors in members of the family related to the participants Questionnaire Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial
Mortality*** All cause Follow-up surveys; Death Certificates; Verbal Autopsy Modified version of Registrar General of India – Center for Global Health Research (RGI-CGHR) Prospective Study on Million Deaths (Form 10C)
  Cardiovascular disease specific; Diabetes-specific   
  1. *Only cross-sectional surveys; **both cross-sectional survey and cohort follow-up; ***only cohort follow-up.