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Table 3 Prospective relationships between changes in work factors and improved work ability

From: Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study

  All workers N = 1,311 Males N = 593 (45%) Females N = 718 (55%)
    Univariate analysis1 Multivariate analysis2    Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis3    Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis3
  Exposed Cases PR 95% CI PR 95% CI Exposed Cases PR 95% CI PR 95% CI Exposed Cases PR 95% CI PR 95% CI
Changes in physical work factors                   
Decreased daily computer use in general 201 23 1.7 a 1.10-2.65 1.8 1.15-2.76 94 9 1.8 a 0.89-3.80    107 14 1.6 a 0.93-2.85 1.7 0.99-3.00
Increased rests during computer use in general 364 30 1.2 0.76-1.74    169 10 1.0 0.49-2.04    195 20 1.2 0.75-2.07   
Decreased time with hands above shoulder level 273 30 1.7 a 1.13-2.55    129 12 1.9 a 0.96-3.67    144 18 1.6 a 0.95-2.67   
Decreased time with flexed or extended neck 309 26 1.2 0.76-1.80    142 9 1.1 0.53-2.29    167 17 1.2 0.72-2.07   
Decreased time with flexed back 293 25 1.2 0.78-1.86    140 10 1.3 0.64-2.63    153 15 1.2 0.66-2.00   
Decreased lifting 5–10 kg 270 21 1.0 0.66-1.67    120 9 1.4 a 0.66-2.84    150 12 0.9 0.49-1.63   
Decreased lifting 11–15 kg 223 16 1.0 0.61-1.70    132 11 1.6 a 0.80-3.18    91 5 0.6 0.24-1.44   
Decreased lifting 16–25 kg 166 13 1.1 0.64-1.94    95 9 1.8 0.88-3.75    71 4 0.6 0.23-1.65   
Decreased lifting > 25 kg 131 11 1.2 0.67-2.24    81 7 1.6 0.71-3.50    50 4 0.9 0.34-2.39   
Decreased forceful grip 267 23 1.2 0.78-1.91    131 8 1.0 0.49-2.25    136 15 1.3 0.77-2.32   
Decreased use of vibrating tools 46 3 1.0 0.31-3.00    31 2 1.1 0.28-4.37    15 1 0.8 0.11-5.09   
Changes in psychosocial work factors
Decreased job demands 236 18 1.0 0.63-1.68    107 10 1.8 a 0.90-3.67    129 8 0.7 0.32-1.36   
Increased job control 199 29 2.3 a 1.56-3.52 1.8 1.18-2.83 90 11 2.6 a 1.30-5.04 2.3 1.21-4.54 109 18 2.2 a 1.35-3.71   
Increased social support at work 239 35 2.5 a 1.68-3.63 2.0 1.34-3.05 103 10 1.9 a 0.94-3.84    136 25 2.8 a 1.76-4.50 2.4 1.43-3.95
Increased reward relative to effort 326 39 2.0 a 1.33-2.87    133 11 1.6 a 0.80-3.15    193 28 2.2 a 1.36-3.48 1.7 1.03-2.82
Decreased negative influence of job demands on private life 349 41 2.0 a 1.34-2.87 1.7 1.13-2.43 149 15 2.2 a 1.18-4.25 2.1 1.10-3.87 200 26 1.8 a 1.13-2.92   
Decreased work outside the workplace 209 14 0.9 0.51-1.52    95 4 0.7 0.24-1.87    114 10 1.0 0.52-1.91   
Decreased overtime work(>12 h/day) 264 20 1.0 0.64-1.64    123 10 1.5 0.76-3.10    141 10 0.8 0.40-1.48   
Decreased reachable by mobile phone out of work time 249 21 1.2 0.74-1.86    117 7 1.0 0.46-2.27    132 14 1.3 0.72-2.23   
Decreased noise annoyance at the workplace 329 25 1.0 0.66-1.58    147 8 0.9 0.42-1.94    182 17 1.1 0.64-1.85   
  1. * The figures in boldface were statistically significant (the lower limit of the 95% CI being > 1.00).
  2. 1 Adjusted for sex.
  3. 2 Backward stepwise analyses, adjusted for sex.
  4. 3 Backward stepwise analyses.
  5. a Work factor with a p-value ≤ 0.2 in the univariate analyses and accordingly included in the starting mutivariate model.
  6. The results are presented for the study sample in whole and for female and male workers separated*.
  7. (N = number of workers, cases = exposed individuals reported improved work ability PR = prevalence ratios, 95% CI = 95% confidence interval).