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Table 2 Characteristic of the control arm and the screening arm, and univariate and multivariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for determinants of attending screening

From: Screening for type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population: study design and feasibility of a population-based randomized controlled trial

  Control arm n = 5304 Screening arm n = 5305 P-value* Screening attendees Screening non-attendees Univariate OR (95% CI)† Multivariate OR (95% CI)†
Age at randomization, mean (range), yrs 56.7 (39.9 – 75.9) 56.6 (39.9 – 76.0) 0.299 57.0 54.4 1.03 (1.02-1.04), p < 0.001 1.03 (1.02 – 1.04), p < 0.001
Gender, male, % 43.9 43.7 0.778 43.4 44.9 0.94 (0.81-1.09), p = 0.422  
Marital status, married, % 74.4 73.6 0.379 75.4 64.5 1.69 (1.44-1.97), p < 0.001 1.57 (1.33 – 1.83), p < 0.001
Highest education completed, %        
Primary 9.5 9.6 0.917 9.2 11.2 0.89 (0.68-1.16), p = 0.400  
Lower secondary 40.8 39.9   40.3 38.2 1.14 (0.95-1.37), p = 0.169  
Upper secondary 24.2 24.8   25.3 23.1 1.18 (0.96-1.45), p = 0.126  
Tertiary 24.4 24.6   24.3 26.3 Reference  
Smoking status, current smoker, % 18.7 19.8 0.389 17.6 31.1 0.47 (0.40-0.56), p < 0.001 0.52 (0.44 – 0.62), p < 0.001
Waist circumference, mean, cm 96.2 96.6 0.214 96.6 96.6 1.00 (0.99-1.01), p = 0.377  
Females 80–87, % 25.3 25.3 0.266 24.6 28.7   
    > = 88, % 74.7 74.7   75.4 71.3   
Males 94–101, % 46.4 46.5 0.282 47.2 43.0   
    > = 102, % 53.5 53.5   52.6 57.0   
Diabetes family history, % 27.2 26.4 0.350 26.5 25.8 1.04 (0.88-1.23), p = 0.674  
Country of birth, %        
Netherlands 91.4 91.1 0.583 91.5 88.9 1.34 (1.05-1.70), p = 0.017 1.20 (0.94-1.54), p = 0.138
Other 8.6 8.9   8.5 11.1   
Western country‡ 4.0 4.0   4.1 3.5   
Non-western country 4.6 4.9   4.4 7.5   
Screening outcome        
Attendance rate, n, (%) 4457 (84.0)      
Impaired fasting glucose, n (%) 170 (3.8)      
Diabetes, n (%) 81 (1.8)      
SCORE† > =5%, 518 (11.6)      
  1. * Chi-square test for comparison of proportions and unpaired t-test for comparison of continuous variables between responders and non-responders.
  2. † OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; SCORE, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation.
  3. ‡ European countries (excluding Turkey), North America, Oceania, Indonesia or Japan.