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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants according to sleep duration

From: Association of sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians

Variable Sleep duration P
≤ 8 hours,n = 371 > 8 hours,n = 62
Sex    <0.001
Male 77 (20.8) 30 (48.4)  
Female 294 (79.2) 32 (51.6)  
Age (years) 55.9 ± 9.0 63.7 ± 8.3 0.079
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.9 ± 2.8 23.2 ± 2.3 0.238
Waist circumference (cm) 74.0 ± 7.8 77.2 ± 7.9 0.002
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125.3 ± 19.1 124.2 ± 19.7 0.914
Education    0.033
 Primary school and below 112 (32.1) 11 (18.3)  
 High school and above 237 (67.9) 49 (81.7)  
Alcohol use 4 (1.1) 0 1.000
Smoking 1 (0.3) 0 1.000
Energy expenditure (Kcal × 103/day) 2.7 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.3 0.034
Family history of hypertension 58 (15.6) 8 (12.9) 0.704
Family history of diabetes 90 (24.3) 17 (27.4) 0.634
White blood cell count (×103/μL) 6.0 ± 1.6 6.6 ± 1.6 0.014
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.6 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.7 0.303
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.7 1.5 ± 0.8 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.42 ± 0.36 1.18 ± 0.25 <0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.98 ± 0.74 2.95 ± 0.60 0.902
ALT (IU/L) 22.1 ± 18.6 25.4 ± 17.8 0.080
Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 4.7 ± 1.3 4.4 ± 1.2 0.393
Creatinine (μmol/L) 56.3 ± 17.7 60.7 ± 16.2 0.013
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.88 ± 0.49 5.02 ± 0.47 0.037
Insulin (mU/L) 6.2 ± 5.7 7.9 ± 6.4 0.020
HOMA-IR 1.4 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.4 0.010
  1. Continuous and categorical variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and number (percentage).
  2. HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
  3. LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
  4. ALT: alanine transaminase.