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Table 3 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for smoking intentions by tobacco promoting/restraining factors among Ghanaian youth (multivariate model), statistically significant odds ratios in bold

From: The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

Factors Smoking intentions*  
  All participants Never smokers  
  Model 2 OR (95% CI) Model 2 OR (95% CI) R-squared**
Environmental and familial tobacco promoting /restraining factors
Smoking allowed on school compound    0.07
No (N = 1165) 1.0 1.0  
Yes (N = 50) 3.5 (1.6-7.8) 4.7 (1.8-11.8)  
Don’t know (N = 48) 1.0 (0.4-2.4) 1.2 (0.4-3.0)  
Total (N = 1263)    
Taught harmful effects of smoking in school *** ***  
Refused cigarette sale due to age *** ***  
Exposure to advertisement    0.06
No (N = 637) 1.0 1.0  
Yes (N = 701) 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 1.4 (1.0-2.0)  
Total (N = 1338)    
Parental smoking    0.06
None (N = 1063) 1.0 1.0  
Can’t say (N = 21) 2.4 (0.9-6.4) 4.7 (1.3-16.9)  
One or both parents smoke (N = 36) 3.1 (1.5-6.7) 2.4 (1.1-5.7)  
Total (N = 1120)    
Family member discussed harmful effects of smoking *** ***  
Knowledge/attitude    
Perceive smoking as harmful to health    0.06
Agree (N = 1127) 1.0 1.0  
Disagree/not sure (N = 178) 2.5 (1.5-3.9) 2.2 (1.3-3.7)  
Total (N = 1305)    
It is difficult to quit smoking, once started    0.06
Agree (N = 971) 1.0 1.0  
Disagree/not sure (N = 337) 1.2 (0.7-1.6) 1.1 (0.7-1.7)  
Total (N = 1308)    
Tobacco should not be sold to those under 18 yrs of age    0.06
Agree (N = 1087) 1.0 1.0  
Disagree/not sure (N = 213) 1.2 (0.8-1.9) 1.3 (0.8-2.1)  
Total (N = 1300)    
  1. *Smoking intentions in the next one year.
  2. ** Nagelkerke R-squared.
  3. ***Not included in the model because variable not statistically significant at the bivariate level (model 1).
  4. Model 2 = All statistically significant factors in model 1 + age + gender + (multivariate model).