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Table 2 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for smoking intentions by tobacco promoting/restraining factors among Ghanaian youth (bivariate model), statistically significant odds ratios in bold

From: The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

Factors Smoking intentions*  
  All participants Never smokers  
  Model 1 OR (95% CI) Model 1 OR (95% CI) R-squared**
Age    0.002
12-14-year-olds 1.0 1.0  
15-16-year-olds 0.9 (0.6-1.3) 0.9 (0.6-1.3)  
17-18-year-olds 0.8 (0.6-1.2) 0.8 (0.5-1.2)  
19-20-year-olds 1.0 (0.6-1.7) 1.2 (0.7-2.0)  
Gender    0.000
Boys 1.0 1.0  
Girls 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 1.0 (0.8-1.4)  
Environmental and familial tobacco promoting /restraining factors
Smoking allowed on school compound    0.09
No (N = 1165) 1.0 1.0  
Yes (N = 50) 3.2 (1.7-5.8) 3.0 (1.5-6.2)  
Don’t know (N = 48) 1.9 (1.1-3.8) 2.0 (0.9-4.2)  
Total (N = 1263)    
Taught harmful effects of smoking in school    
Yes (N = 891) 1.0 1.0  
No/Not sure (N = 372) 1.2 (0.8-1.5) 1.0 (0.9-1.1)  
Total (N = 1263)    
Refused cigarette sale due to age    
No (N = 71) 1.0 1.0  
Yes (N = 93) 1.5 (0.8-2.9) 0.7 (0.3-1.8)  
Total (N = 164)    
Exposure to advertisement    0.08
No (N = 637) 1.0 1.0  
Yes (N = 701) 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 1.5 (1.1-2.1)  
Total (N = 1338)    
Parental smoking    0.08
None (N = 1063) 1.0 1.0  
Can’t say (N = 21) 3.1 (1.2-8.0) 4.3 (1.2-15.2)  
One or both parents smoke (N = 36) 3.7 (1.8-7.6) 3.0 (1.4-6.6)  
Total (N = 1120)    
Family member discussed harmful effects of smoking    
Yes (N = 918) 1.0 1.0  
No (N = 355) 1.1 (0.8-1.5) 1.1 (0.8-1.6)  
Total (N = 1273)    
Knowledge/attitude    
Perceive smoking as harmful to health    0.08
Agree (N = 1127) 1.0 1.0  
Disagree/not sure (N = 178) 3.4 (2.4-4.8) 2.9 (1.9-4.3)  
Total (N = 1305)    
It is difficult to quit smoking, once started    0.08
Agree (N = 971) 1.0 10  
Disagree/not sure (N = 337) 1.7 (1.2-2.2) 1.5 (1.1-2.1)  
Total (N = 1308)    
Tobacco should not be sold to those under 18 yrs of age    0.08
Agree (N = 1087) 1.0 1.0  
Disagree/not sure (N = 213) 2.5 (1.8-3.5) 2.1 (1.5-3.1)  
Total (N = 1300)    
  1. *Smoking intentions in the next one year.
  2. ** Nagelkerke R-squared.
  3. Model 1 = Factor + age + gender (bivariate model).