Potential structures of the disability paradox depicted as directed graphs: Explanation (a) vs. Mediation (b) vs. Moderation (c) The figure shows potential structures of the disability paradox depicted as directed graphs. More specifically, we formulate hypotheses on the relationship of limitations in activities and participation, contextual factors, impairment, and perceived health. Three different structures are suggested: explanation (a) vs. mediation (b) vs. moderation (c). A moderator may affect the strength and/or direction between a predictor and an outcome variable. A mediator on the other hand is affected by the predictor and accounts for the behavior of the outcome variable . As a special case of moderation we can regard explanation.