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Table 1 Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam

From: Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam

  Ethnicity (minorities) Gender (women) Education (low education) Economic status and Occupation (poor)
Material Circumstances ▄ iNutritional status [2528] ▄ No studies found ▄ Childhood nutrition [53] ▄ Childhood nutrition [54]
  ▄ Distance to health facilities [29, 38]    ▄ Need to take off work [51]
Behaviors and Biological Factors ▄ Early childbearing [30] ▄ Women not allowed travelling by themselves [39] ▄ Limited knowledge about contraceptives [31] ▄ Inadequate antibiotics regime due to lack of money [51]
  ▄ Cultural taboos towards contraceptives and abortion [30, 31] ▄ Women lacking decision making power due to Confucian norms [36, 47, 48, 54] ▄ Less care seeking [51] ▄ No work-cessation before delivery [55]
  ▄ Preference for home delivery [24, 3236] ▄ Son preference [45, 46] ▄ Less medication use [51] ▄ Time constraints [31]
  ▄ Maintenance of traditional health beliefs and rituals [37, 38]   ▄ Less antenatal care [55] ▄ Self-medication [60]
  ▄ Less likely to seek care [13, 39]    
  ▄ Less likely to treat diarrhea with ORS [40]    
Psychosocial Factors ▄ Assimilation policies [41] ▄ Domestic violence [31, 49] ▄ No studies found ▄ No studies found
  ▄ Discrimination [35, 39] ▄ Son preference [48]   
Health System Factors ▄ Distance to health facilities [29, 38] ▄ Only male staff at CHCs [35] ▄ No studies found ▄ User fees [56, 60]
     ▄ Indirect costs [39, 43, 56]
  ▄ Low level of cultural competence among health staff [43] ▄ Lack of privacy [50]   ▄ No health insurance [62]
  ▄ Language barriers [35, 42]    
  ▄ Discriminatory behaviour [20, 31, 39]    
  ▄ Less covered by health insurance [44]    
  ▄ Less contacts within the health system [38]