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Table 2 Number of external validity items reported in each study by domain

From: External validity in healthy public policy: application of the RE-AIM tool to the field of housing improvement

Author year Study design Internal validity grade External validity domains (maximum possible score)
Reach & representat’n (4) Implementat’n & adaptation (4) Outcomes (5) Maintenance & institutionalisat’n (4) Total (17)
Intervention: Warmth & Energy Efficiency improvements (post 1980) (n = 19)
Heyman et al. 2010 RCT A 1 2 3 2 8
Braubach et al. 2008 CBA A 2 1 1 1 5
Howden-Chapman et al. 2008 RCT A 2 1 1 1 5
Barton et al. 2007 RCT A 2 1 3 2 8
Howden-Chapman et al. 2007 RCT A 2 0 3 1 6
Platt et al. 2007 CBA A 1 1 4 2 8
Lloyd et al. 2008 CBA B 1 0 3 2 6
Shortt et al. 2007 CBA B 2 2 2 2 8
Somerville et al. 2000 UBA B 2 1 3 1 7
Hopton et al. 1996 CBA B 2 0 2 1 5
Warm Front Study Group 2006 RC C 1 1 5 0 7
Allen 2005 a UBA C 1 1 2 2 6
Allen 2005 b UBA C 1 2 1 1 5
Health Action Kirklees 2005 R C 1 0 1 0 2
Eick et al. 2004 RCT C 2 1 4 2 9
Winder et al. 2003 UBA C 1 0 0 1 2
Caldwell et al. 2001 CBA C 2 2 3 2 9
Green et al. 1999 RC C 1 0 3 0 4
Iversen et al. 1986 CBA C 1 0 1 1 3
Mean (range)    1.47 (1–2) 0.84 (0–2) 2.37 (0–4) 1.26 (0–2) 5.95 (2–9)
Intervention: Rehousing/retrofitting +/− neighbourhood renewal (post 1995) (n = 10)
Kearns et al. 2008 CBA A 1 1 3 2 7
Thomson et al. 2007 CBA A 2 0 2 2 6
Critchley et al. 2004 CBA A 0 1 4 1 6
Thomas et al. 2005 CBA B 2 1 3 1 7
Barnes et al. 2003 CBA B 2 0 2 2 6
Evans et al. 2002 CBA B 1 0 2 0 3
Blackman et al. 2001 UBA C 2 0 2 2 6
Wells 2000 UBA C 2 0 1 2 5
Ambrose 1999 UBA C 2 1 3 2 8
Halpern 1995 XUBA C 2 1 2 1 6
Mean (range)    1.6 (0–2) 0.50 (0–1) 2.40 (1–4) 1.50 (0–2) 6 (3–8)
Intervention: Provision of basic housing needs/developing country intervention (n = 6)
Cattaneo et al. 2006 RC B 2 1 4 1 8
Choudhary et al. 2002 RC B 1 1 3 1 6
Aga Khan Health Service 2001 XCBA B 1 1 2 1 5
Spiegel et al. 2003 XCBA C 2 0 1 1 4
Aiga et al. 2002 XCBA C 1 1 3 0 5
Wolff et al. 2001 XCBA C 2 0 2 1 5
Mean (range)    1.50 (1–2) 0.67 (0–1) 2.67 (1–4) 0.83 (0–1) 5.5 (4–8)
Intervention: Rehousing from slums (pre 1965) (n = 4)
Wilner et al. 1960 CBA A 2 1 3 2 8
McGonigle et al. 1936 XCBA B 2 1 4 1 8
Ferguson 1954 RC C 1 0 1 1 3
Chapin 1938 UBA C 2 1 4 2 9
Mean (range)    1.75 (1–2) 0.75 (0–1) 3.00 (2–4) 1.50 (1–2) 7.00 (3–9)
TOTAL (n = 39 studies) MEAN (range)    1.54 (0–2) 0.72 (0–2) 2.49 (0–4) 1.28 (0–2) 6.00 (2–9)
  1. Study design: RCT: Randomised Controlled Trial; CBA: Controlled Before & After; UBA: Uncontrolled Before & After; XCBA: Cross-sectional Controlled Before & After; XUBA: Cross-sectional Uncontrolled Before & After; RC: Retrospective controlled; R: Retrospective uncontrolled.
  2. List of references available in reference 4 or from the author.