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Table 1 Unadjusted and adjusted* backward stepwise Cox regression models for vulnerabilities associated with HCV incidence among Cedar participants who used injection drugs (n = 148)

From: The Cedar Project: high incidence of HCV infections in a longitudinal study of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities

Variable Baseline^ n (%) Unadjusted HR (95%CI) P value Adjusted HR (95%CI) P value
Location     -  
Prince George 63 (42.6) 1.48 (0.82, 2.66) 0.676   
Vancouver 85 (57.4) 1.0 (Reference)    
Sex      
Female 79 (53.4) 1.43 (0.79, 2.60)   -  
Male 69 (46.6) 1.0 (Reference) 0.240   
Age at enrolment 23.1** (3.9) 0.95 (0.87, 1.02) 0.161 - -
Sexual identity      
Gay/bisexual/two-spirited 17 (11.5) 1.62 (0.72, 3.63) 0.242 - -
Straight 131 (88.5) 1.0 (Reference)    
At least one parent in residential school     - -
Yes 81 (54.7) 0.95 (0.53, 1.70) 0.850   
No/unsure 67 (45.3) 1.0 (Reference)    
Ever taken into foster care     - -
Yes 101 (68.2) 1.29 (0.67, 2.51) 0.445   
No 47 (31.8) 1.0 (reference)    
Ever sexually abused      -
Yes 76 (52.1) 1.66 (0.91, 3.04) 0.098 -  
No/unsure 70 (47.9) 1.0 (reference)    
Sexual assault last 6 months     - -
Yes 3 (2) 1.19 (0.37, 3.85) 0.770   
No 145 (98) 1.0 (reference)    
Relationship status last 6 months     - -
Single 115 (77.8) 0.96 (0.64, 1.45) 0.856   
In a relationship 33 (22.2) 1.0 (Reference)    
Ever on streets for >3 nights    0.845 - -
Yes 56 (38.1) 0.94 (0.52, 1.72)    
No 91 (61.9) 1.0 (reference)    
On street for > nights last 6 months      -
Yes n/a 1.26 (0.83, 1.90) 0.275 -  
No   1.0 (reference)    
Ever been in jail prison      
Yes 97 (66) 1.11 (0.59, 2.09) 0.742 - -
No 50 (34) 1.0 (reference)    
Been in jail or prison last 6 months     - -
Yes 38 (25.7) 1.25 (0.83, 1.89) 0.291   
No 110 (74.3) 1.0 (reference)    
Ever attempted suicide      
Yes 66 (44.6) 0.67 (0.37, 1.23) 0.195 - -
No 82 (55.4) 1.0 (reference)    
Number of lifetime sexual partners    0.530 - -
>20 70 (48.6) 1.21 (0.67, 2.18)    
<20/refused 74 (51.4) 1.0 (reference)    
Ever involved in sex work     - -
Yes 67 (45.6) 1.63 (0.90, 2.96) 0.107   
No 80 (54.4) 1.0 (reference)    
Involved in sex work last 6 months      
Yes 47 (31.8) 1.71 (1.16, 2.53) 0.007 1.59 (1.05, 2.42) 0.030
No 101 (68.2) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
Condom use for insertive sex with regular partner last 6 months     - -
Not always 62 (41.9) 0.82 (0.51, 1.34) 0.437   
Always 86 (58.1) 1.0 (reference)    
Condom use for insertive sex with causal partner last 6 months     - -
Not always 28 (18.9) 0.60 (0.24, 1.48) 0.268   
Always 120 (81.1) 1.0 (reference)    
Condom use for insertive sex with clients last 6 months     - -
Not always 6 (4.1) 1.96 (0.61, 6.36) 0.260   
Always 142 (95.9) 1.0 (reference)    
Ever had a STI      
Yes 65 (43.9) 1.17 (0.65, 2.12)   - -
No 83 (56.1) 1.0 (reference) 0.604   
Had a STI last 6 months      
Yes 16 (10.8) 0.94 (0.36, 2.50) 0.908 - -
No 132 (89.2) 1.0 (reference)    
Ever overdose      
Yes 48 (32.4) 0.76 (0.42, 1.40) 0.382 - -
No 100 (67.6) 1.0 (reference)    
Overdose last 6 months      
Yes 20 (13.5) 1.71 (0.82, 3.58) 0.152 - -
No 128 (86.5) 1.0 (reference)    
Time since initiation of injection drug use1      
< 2 years n/a 4.57 (2.19, 9.51) <0.001 4.14 (1.91, 8.94) <0.001
2-5 years   2.43 (1.09, 5.45) 0.031 2.12 (0.94, 4.77) 0.070
> 5 years   1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
Frequency of injection cocaine last 6 months      
Daily 16 (10.8) 3.94 (2.49, 6.24) <0.001 2.47 (1.51, 4.05) <0.001
< Daily/non-user 132 (89.2) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
Frequency of injection methamphetamine last 6 months     - -
Daily 4 (2.7) 1.79 (0.90, 3.57) 0.099   
< Daily/non-user 144 (97.3) 1.0 (reference)    
Frequency of injection opiates last 6 months     - -
Daily 27 (18.2) 2.06 (1.43, 2.98) <0.001   
< Daily/non-user 125 (81.7) 1.0 (reference)    
Syringe sharing last 6 months      
Yes 19 (12.8) 3.35 (2.09, 5.39) <0.001 2.56 (1.47, 4.49) 0.001
No 129 (87.2) 1.0 (reference)   1.0 (reference)  
Reuse of own syringes last 6 months     - -
Yes 13 (9.1) 2.17 (1.48, 3.19) <0.001   
No 131 (90.9) 1.0 (reference)    
Hard to find new syringes last 6 months     - -
Yes 15 (10.1) 2.16 (1.31, 3.57) 0.003   
No 133 (89.9) 1.0 (reference)    
Need help injecting last 6 months     - -
Yes 38 (25.7) 1.14 (0.61, 2.14) 0.687   
No 110 (74.3) 1.0 (reference)    
Accessed any alcohol or drug treatment program last 6 months     - -
Yes 31 (21.1) 1.25 (0.81, 1.93) 0.317   
No 116 (78.9) 1.0 (reference)    
Unable to access drug treatment program     - -
Yes 22 (15) 0.90 (0.48, 1.69) 0.741   
No 125 (85) 1.0 (reference)    
Currently in methadone treatment program     - -
Yes 5 (3.4) 2.11 (0.83, 5.37) 0.117   
No 143 (96.6) 1.0 (reference)    
  1. *All variables significant at the p ≤ 0.10 level in unadjusted analysis were included in the adjusted backward stepwise Cox proportional hazards model.
  2. HR Hazard Ratio.
  3. ^Responses with less than n = 148 participants reflect missing data.
  4. **Mean age (standard deviation).
  5. 1For those who had seroconverted to HCV positive, variable was time to seroconversion; and those who were non-incident cases, variable measured time to last follow up visit since initiation of injection.
  6. n/a: not available.