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Table 1 Univariable analysis of risk factors for depressive symptoms in children aged 7 to 9 years, São Luís (2005/06)

From: Perinatal and early life factors associated with symptoms of depression in Brazilian children

Variables N* % depressive symptoms (weighted) Prevalence Ratio 95 % Confidence Interval
Sex     
Male 346 15.1 Reference  
Female 324 12.2 0.80 0.54 - 1.20
Low birth weight     
No 590 13.7 Reference  
Yes 80 13.0 0.95 0.49 - 1.85
Preterm birth     
No 583 13.3 Reference  
Yes 87 17.6 1.33 0.74 - 2.38
Maternal schooling (years)     
0 to 4 102 18.7 2.05 1.15 - 3.65
5 to 8 300 15.9 1.74 1.08 - 2.82
≥9 268 9.1 Reference  
Number of household members     
1 to 4 254 14.3 1.07 0.71 - 1.60
≥ 5 415 13.4 Reference  
Parity     
1 315 12.4 0.81 0.54 - 1.22
2 to 4 320 15.2 Reference  
≥5 35 11.0 0.72 0.24 - 2.16
Maternal smoking     
No 642 13.6 Reference  
Yes 28 16.9 1.25 0.50 - 3.11
Maternal age (years)     
<20 199 16.1 1.30 0.85 - 1.98
20 to 34 440 12.4 Reference  
≥35 31 16.7 1.34 0.56 – 3.24
Paternal age (years)     
<20 57 21.9 1.68 0.94 - 2.98
20 to 34 491 13.1 Reference  
≥35 106 12.6 0.97 0.54 - 1.73
Maternal job     
No 531 14.9 Reference  
Yes 139 9.5 0.64 0.36 - 1.12
Occupation of family head     
Non-manual 105 8.5 Reference  
Manual skilled and semi-skilled 317 14.9 1.75 0.85 - 3.59
Manual unskilled and unemployed 225 15.3 1.79 0.86 - 3.75
Marital status     
Married 198 13.2 0.92 0.57 - 1.48
Consensual union 313 14.3 Reference  
No companion 159 13.1 0.92 0.56 - 1.51
  1. *Totals (n = 670) may differ for some variables because of missing data.