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Table 1 Sample characteristics and metabolic blood profile in means (SD) or percentage (%) by maternal education

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

  Total Low education Mid education High education p-valuea
N 1308 68 216 1024  
Age 5.67 (0.43) 5.66 (0.44) 5.74 (0.44) 5.66 (0.42) .04
Sex (% boys) 51.1 45.6 48.6 52.1 .42
Height m 1.16 (0.06) 1.17 (0.06) 1.17 (0.06) 1.16 (0.05) .12
Size at birth      .34
SGA (<p10) (%) 5.4 4.4 8.3 4.9  
AGA 79.9 79.4 78.2 80.3  
LGA (>p90) 14.7 16.2 13.4 14.8  
Pre pregnancy Maternal BMI 22.8 (3.6) 25.1 (4.7) 23.5 (3.8) 22.5 (3.3) <.001
Breastfeeding duration      <.001
< 1 month (%) 23.1 39.7 31.0 20.3  
1 – 3 months 24.9 30.9 28.7 23.8  
> 3 months 52.0 29.4 40.3 55.9  
Childhood sdsBMI −0.15 (0.82) 0.14 (1.00) −0.14 (0.94) −0.17 (0.77) .009
Physical activity      
sports club member (% yes) 58.2 52.3 59.0 58.4 .42
Walking to school      .001
No 47.1 47.6 45.1 47.5  
< 30 min a week 23.7 11.1 23.3 24.6  
31 – 60 min a week 19.4 15.9 22.3 19.0  
> 60 min a week 9.7 25.4 9.2 8.9  
Cycling to school      .27
No 62.5 65.6 64.4 61.9  
< 30 min a week 19.5 25.0 16.8 19.7  
31 – 60 min a week 11.4 4.7 13.9 11.3  
> 60 min a week 6.6 4.7 4.8 7.1  
Income adequacy      <.001
Inadequate (%) 8.1 7.5 11.1 7.3  
Adequate 18.9 45.6 27.3 15.4  
Bit more than adequate 41.9 36.8 43.1 42.0  
Lot more than adequate 31.1 5.9 18.5 35.4  
Outcome      
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.0 (0.7) 4.0 (0.7) 4.1 (0.7) 4.0 (0.7) .47
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) .99
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.3 (0.6) 2.3 (0.6) 2.4 (0.7) 2.3 (0.6) .45
Triglyceridesb (mmol/l) 0.6 (0.4 – 0.8) 0.6 (0.5 – 0.8) 0.6 (0.4 – 0.8) 0.6 (0.4 – 0.8) .66
Glucose (mmol/l) 4.6 (0.5) 4.7 (0.6) 4.6 (0.5) 4.5 (0.5) .01
n 974 52 154 768  
C-peptideb (nmol/l) 0.32 (0.28 – 0.38) 0.38 (0.32 – 0.44) 0.33 (0.28 – 0.40) 0.32 (0.28 – 0.38) <.001
HOMA-IR 0.7 (0.3) 0.9 (0.4) 0.8 (0.3) 0.7 (0.2) <.001
  1. a based on ANOVAs and Chi Square test. P-values for triglycerides and C-peptide were based on log transformed data.
  2. b median (interquartile range).