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Table 4 Hierarchical regression model of at-risk alcohol consumption (AUDIT score ≥ 8) for Australian Rural Mental Health Study participants: steps 5 and 6 – rural exposure and contextual factors

From: Individual and district-level predictors of alcohol use: cross sectional findings from a rural mental health survey in Australia

Step - Predictor variable AUDIT total score Univariate OR (99%CI) Multivariate AOR (99%CI)
   0-7 n=1,694 n (%) ≥ 8 n=287 n (%)   
5. Rural Exposure
Standardised service and support accessibility: Mean (SD) -0.029 (1.006) -0.065 (0.931) 0.96 (0.82, 1.1) 0.98 (0.79, 1.2)
Drought related concerns Low 1,346 (86) 224 (14)   
  High 348 (85) 63 (15) 1.1 (0.73, 1.6) 1.1 (0.72, 1.8)
Proportion of life lived in a rural district Whole life 299 (87) 44 (13)   
  ≥ half 468 (88) 64 (12) 0.93 (0.54, 1.6) 1.2 (0.66, 2.1)
  < half 927 (84) 179 (16) 1.3 (0.82, 2.1) 1.7 (1.03, 2.9)*
6. Contextual factors
District remoteness ASGC Category using ARIA+ Inner regional 602 (85) 106 (15)   
  Outer regional 631 (85) 113 (15) 1.02 (0.70, 1.5) 1.2 (0.79, 1.9)
  Remote 329 (86) 52 (14) 0.9 (0.56, 1.4) 1.4 (0.70, 2.8)
  Very remote 132 (89) 16 (11) 0.69 (0.33, 1.4) 0.94 (0.38, 2.3)
District population change 2002-2006 (%): Mean (SD) 0.25 (1.027) 0.39 (0.920) 1.2 (0.97, 1.4) 1.2 (0.89, 1.5)  
Standardised SEIFA IRSD: Mean (SD) -0.004 (1.019) 0.115 (0.995) 1.1 (0.95, 1.3) 1.1 (0.89, 1.3)  
At least 6 months out of last 12 in drought No 1418 (85) 256 (15)   
  Yes 276 (90) 31 (10) 0.62 (0.37, 1.05) 0.58 (0.33, 1.03)
District remoteness ASGC Category using ARIA+ Inner regional 602 (85) 106 (15)   
  1. AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; ARIA+: Accessibility Remoteness Index of Australia Plus; ASGC: Australian Standard Geographic Classification; CI: Confidence Interval; IRSD: Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage; OR: Odds Ratio; SEIFA: Socio-Economic Indexes for Area. Due to rounding, row percentages may not add up to exactly 100%. * P < .01, ** P < .001.