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Table 2 Potential determinants for reporting not to have participated in the NIPa (N = 4506) and population attributable fractions (PAF)

From: Participation in and attitude towards the national immunization program in the Netherlands: data from population-based questionnaires

Variable (N) Reported Crudeb Adjusted PAF in %
  nonparticipation in the NIP in % OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) (95% CI)
Age (yrs)     
0-4 (1385) 3 1.7 (0.8-3.7) 1.4 (0.6-3.1)  
5-9 (660) 7 2.7 (1.2-6.0) 2.0 (0.9-4.5)  
10-29 (1470) 3 3.0 (1.4-6.2) 2.3 (1.1-4.9)  
30-44 (991) 1 Reference Reference  
Gender     
Men (2051) 3 Reference Reference  
Women (2455) 3 1.1 (0.8-1.6) 1.1 (0.7-1.5)  
Ethnicity     
Indigenous Dutch (3640) 2 Reference Reference  
Other Western (226) 2 1.4 (0.5-3.5) 1.4 (0.5-3.8)  
Moroccan and Turkish (200) 19 11.7 (6.8-20.1) 7.1 (2.5-20.1) 21.5 (4.3-36.7)
Antilles and Aruba and Surinam (223) 6 3.1 (1.5-6.1) 3.3 (1.5-7.1) 4.4 (-1.0-11.7)
Other non-Western (217) 8 4.5 (2.4-8.2) 3.3 (1.6-7.1) 6.1 (-1.2-14.4)
Religion     
Reformed Congregations (59) 17 12.5 (5.2-30.1) 15.2 (6.1-37.8) 7.4 (0.1-18.4)
Reformed Bonders (129) 6 4.2 (1.7-10.4) 4.8 (1.9-12.1) 5.2 (0.1-13.1)
Other specific Protestant Church (805) 2 Reference Reference  
Catholics (1183) 1 0.8 (0.4-1.6) 0.8 (0.4-1.6)  
Muslims (281) 16 1.4 (0.6-3.8) 1.2 (0.5-3.3)  
Other religionc (204) 7 2.2 (1.0-4.9) 1,7 (0.7-3.9)  
No religion (1845) 2 0.8 (0.4-1.5) 0.7 (0.4-1.4)  
Degree of urbanization     
Very high (963) 6 Reference Reference  
High (1998) 2 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.6 (0.4-1.0)  
Moderate (570) 2 0.9 (0.4-1.9) 0.6 (0.3-1.4)  
Low (452) 2 1.1 (0.4-3.3) 1.3 (0.4-4.2)  
Very low (523) 3 1.1 (0.6-2.2) 1.1 (0.5-2.2)  
Region     
Northeast (1023) 3 Reference Reference  
Central (843) 2 0.8 (0.3-1.9) 0.6 (0.2-1.6)  
Northwest (1017) 5 1.0 (0.6-1.8) 0.8 (0.5-1.5)  
Southwest (808) 4 1.2 (0.6-2.3) 1.0 (0.5-1.9)  
Southeast (815) 2 0.6 (0.3-1.2) 0.7 (0.3-1.5)  
No. of persons in household     
1 (203) 2 0.8 (0.2-2.7)   
2 (516) 1 0.6 (0.3-1.3)   
3 (990) 3 1.2 (0.7-1.9)   
4 (1718) 2 Reference   
> 4 (1079) 5 1.4 (0.9-2.1)   
Educational level d     
Low (317) 13 2.1 (1.2-3.7) 2.5 (1.3-4.6) 13.7 (-1.2-29.7)
Moderate (2123) 3 1.1 (0.7-1.7 1.4 (0.9-2.2)  
High (2066) 2 Reference Reference  
Net monthly household income e     
Low (569) 9 2.1 (1.1-4.1) 1.9 (1.0-4.0) 13.1 (-8.1-32.1)
Moderate (2051) 2 1.0 (0.5-1.8) 0.8 (0.4-1.6)  
High (936) 2 Reference Reference  
Won't answer/missing answer (950) 2 0.97 (0.5-1.9) 0.9 (0.4-1.9)  
Anthroposophy     
Yes (46) 28 27.0 (12.8-57.0) 39.2 (17.5-87.9) 8.4 (2.3-17.6)
No (4460) 3 Reference Reference  
Homeopathy     
Yes (75) 5 2.6 (0.9-7.5)   
No (4431) 3 Reference   
Other alternative medicine     
Yes (36) 8 2.6 (0.7-9.3)   
No (4470) 3 Reference   
Religious belief     
Yes (82) 17 9.5 (4.8-18.6)   
No (4424) 3 Reference   
Other ideas influencing vaccination     
Yes (189) 3 1.4 (0.6-3.3)   
No (4317) 3 Reference   
  1. aThe reference category is reporting "yes" at the question whether they (had) participated in the NIP
  2. bCrude odds ratios were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, degree of urbanization and region
  3. cOther religion included: Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism
  4. dLow educational level included no education and primary education; middle educational level included junior technical school, lower general secondary education and intermediate vocational education; and high educational level included senior/higher secondary education, pre-university education and university
  5. eNet monthly income was categorized as low (less than € 1.150, which is less than € 1.167 by Statistic Netherlands); middle (€ 1.151-€ 3.050, which is € 1.168-€ 2.917 by Statistic Netherlands); high (more than € 3.051, which is more than € 2.918 by Statistic Netherlands); and a won't answer/missing answer category was included. Statistics Netherlands available at www.cbs.nl