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Table 6 Insomnia-related symptoms: associations with socioeconomic factors

From: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

  Model 1 Adjusted for age and gender Model 2 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children and area Model 3 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status and income Model 4 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status, income and self-perceived health
  OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
PARENTAL EDUCATION         
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 0.90 (0.62, 1.32) 0.60 0.90 (0.62, 1.31) 0.59 0.89 (0.60, 1.30) 0.53 0.90 (0.61, 1.33) 0.59
 Low 1.13 (0.84, 1.53) 0.41 1.13 (0.83, 1.52) 0.44 1.06 (0.77, 1.45) 0.72 1.03 (0.75, 1.41) 0.87
 Do not know 0.52 (0.26, 1.06) 0.07 0.52 (0.25, 1.05) 0.07 0.54 (0.26, 1.13) 0.10 0.57 (0.27, 1.18) 0.13
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 1.09 (0.68, 1.73) 0.72 1.10 (0.69, 1.75) 0.70 1.00 (0.62, 1.61) 1.00 1.04 (0.63, 1.72) 0.88
 Low 1.07 (0.73, 1.56) 0.73 1.03 (0.70, 1.51) 0.88 0.82 (0.55, 1.24) 0.35 0.80 (0.52, 1.23) 0.31
 Do not know 1.43 (0.77, 2.63) 0.25 1.40 (0.76, 2.61) 0.28 1.01 (0.52, 1.96) 0.97 1.11 (0.52, 2.39) 0.78
Global P-value 0.08   0.08   0.16   0.15  
n 5445   5437   5307   5300  
OWN EDUCATION         
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10-12) 1.06 (0.89, 1.26) 0.54 1.05 (0.88, 1.25) 0.59 0.99 (0.83, 1.18) 0.89 0.94 (0.78, 1.12) 0.47
 low (7–9) 1.15 (0.96, 1.38) 0.12 1.13 (0.94, 1.35) 0.19 1.03 (0.84, 1.24) 0.80 0.92 (0.76, 1.12) 0.42
 very low (< 7) 0.97 (0.73, 1.30) 0.83 0.94 (0.70, 1.25) 0.65 0.78 (0.57, 1.06) 0.11 0.69 (0.50, 0.95) 0.02
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10–12) 1.42 (1.12, 1.80) 0.004 1.34 (1.06, 1.71) 0.02 1.27 (0.96, 1.67) 0.09 1.14 (0.86, 1.51) 0.36
 low (7–9) 1.56 (1.22, 1.99) 0.0004 1.48 (1.15, 1.89) 0.002 1.19 (0.89, 1.58) 0.24 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) 0.63
 very low (< 7) 1.26 (0.88, 1.80) 0.20 1.30 (0.89, 1.90) 0.17 1.03 (0.68, 1.56) 0.90 0.75 (0.47, 1.17) 0.20
Global P-value 0.01   0.07   0.33   0.19  
n 5560   5550   5307   5300  
HOUSEHOLD INCOME LEVEL         
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 0.95 (0.79, 1.14) 0.58 1.02 (0.84, 1.24) 0.82 1.02 (0.84, 1.23) 0.83 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 0.92
 2nd 1.22 (1.02, 1.47) 0.03 1.33 (1.10, 1.61) 0.004 1.28 (1.05, 1.56) 0.01 1.21 (0.98, 1.48) 0.07
 lowest income quartile 1.27 (1.04, 1.54) 0.02 1.36 (1.11, 1.66) 0.003 1.27 (1.02, 1.58) 0.03 1.18 (0.95, 1.47) 0.13
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 1.03 (0.80, 1.33) 0.83 1.23 (0.93, 1.62) 0.15 1.03 (0.77, 1.38) 0.83 1.01 (0.75, 1.36) 0.96
 2nd 1.48 (1.16, 1.88) 0.002 1.77 (1.37, 2.28) <0.0001 1.33 (1.00, 1.77) 0.05 1.19 (0.88, 1.59) 0.25
 lowest income quartile 1.89 (1.46, 2.45) <0.0001 2.32 (1.77, 3.04) <0.0001 1.54 (1.13, 2.09) 0.006 1.35 (0.98, 1.86) 0.06
Global P-value <0.0001   <0.0001   0.006   0.15  
n 5453   5453   5307   5300  
EMPLOYMENT STATUS         
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 1.49 (1.17, 1.91) 0.001 1.44 (1.13, 1.83) 0.004 1.25 (0.96, 1.62) 0.10 1.16 (0.89, 1.52) 0.27
 Disability pension 1.34 (1.00, 1.79) 0.05 1.29 (0.96, 1.73) 0.09 1.19 (0.88, 1.61) 0.26 0.96 (0.71, 1.30) 0.80
 Old age retirement 0.97 (0.73, 1.28) 0.81 0.93 (0.70, 1.24) 0.62 0.84 (0.62, 1.13) 0.24 0.86 (0.64, 1.16) 0.32
 Other pension 0.99 (0.65, 1.49) 0.94 0.93 (0.61, 1.41) 0.72 0.82 (0.53, 1.28) 0.39 0.83 (0.54, 1.28) 0.39
 Other 1.54 (1.07, 2.20) 0.02 1.58 (1.09, 2.29) 0.02 1.32 (0.89, 1.95) 0.16 1.31 (0.89, 1.93) 0.17
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 3.19 (2.42, 4.21) <0.0001 3.02 (2.29, 3.98) <0.0001 2.48 (1.81, 3.38) <0.0001 2.00 (1.45, 2.76) <0.0001
 Disability pension 3.30 (2.34, 4.67) <0.0001 3.36 (2.38, 4.73) <0.0001 2.88 (1.99, 4.17) <0.0001 1.69 (1.14, 2.50) 0.009
 Old age retirement 1.15 (0.79, 1.69) 0.46 1.31 (0.89, 1.93) 0.17 1.17 (0.78, 1.74) 0.45 1.12 (0.74, 1.68) 0.59
 Other pension 1.40 (0.82, 2.39) 0.22 1.44 (0.85, 2.45) 0.18 1.30 (0.74, 2.28) 0.36 1.26 (0.71, 2.23) 0.43
 Other 1.69 (1.04, 2.75) 0.03 2.10 (1.29, 3.42) 0.003 1.61 (0.94, 2.76) 0.08 1.47 (0.87, 2.49) 0.15
Global P-value <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   0.0004  
n 5578   5568   5307   5300