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Table 4 Sleep duration: associations with socioeconomic factors

From: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

  Model 1 Adjusted for age and gender Model 2 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children and area Model 3 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status and income Model 4 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status, income and self-perceived health
  OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
PARENTAL EDUCATION         
< 5 h vs. 7 h         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 1.05 (0.38, 2.86) 0.93 1.05 (0.38, 2.89) 0.93 0.89 (0.32, 2.46) 0.82 0.90 (0.32, 2.52) 0.84
 Low 1.52 (0.71, 3.24) 0.28 1.44 (0.67, 3.09) 0.35 0.93 (0.41, 2.11) 0.87 0.91 (0.40, 2.07) 0.81
 Do not know 1.96 (0.62, 6.20) 0.25 1.79 (0.56, 5.74) 0.33 0.93 (0.26, 3.36) 0.91 0.90 (0.23, 3.43) 0.87
5 h vs. 7 h         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 5.27 (1.20, 23.2) 0.03 5.31 (1.21, 23.3) 0.03 4.47 (1.02, 19.6) 0.05 4.51 (1.09, 18.7) 0.04
 Low 3.84 (0.94, 15.6) 0.06 3.61 (0.98, 14.7) 0.07 2.36 (0.57, 9.76) 0.24 2.31 (0.59, 9.12) 0.23
 Do not know 4.73 (0.82, 27.4) 0.08 4.36 (0.76, 25.1) 0.10 2.56 (0.43, 15.3) 0.30 2.54 (0.41, 15.7) 0.31
6 h vs. 7 h         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 0.87 (0.53, 1.44) 0.60 0.88 (0.53, 1.46) 0.63 0.87 (0.52, 1.44) 0.59 0.87 (0.53, 1.45) 0.60
 Low 0.99 (0.68, 1.43) 0.95 0.98 (0.68, 1.42) 0.92 0.90 (0.60, 1.33) 0.59 0.89 (0.60, 1.33) 0.58
 Do not know 0.53 (0.21, 1.29) 0.16 0.48 (0.19, 1.19) 0.12 0.44 (0.17, 1.11) 0.08 0.44 (0.17, 1.11) 0.08
8 h vs. 7 h         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 1.00 (0.71, 1.40) 1.00 0.99 (0.71, 1.39) 0.96 0.97 (0.69, 1.35) 0.84 0.98 (0.70, 1.37) 0.90
 Low 0.96 (0.74, 1.26) 0.79 0.94 (0.72, 1.22) 0.65 0.94 (0.72, 1.22) 0.63 0.94 (0.72, 1.24) 0.68
 Do not know 0.93 (0.57, 1.51) 0.76 0.91 (0.56, 1.49) 0.71 0.81 (0.47, 1.39) 0.45 0.82 (0.48, 1.41) 0.47
9 h vs. 7 h         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 0.84 (0.52, 1.38) 0.50 0.85 (0.52, 1.39) 0.51 0.80 (0.48, 1.33) 0.38 0.81 (0.48, 1.35) 0.41
 Low 0.82 (0.55, 1.22) 0.33 0.82 (0.54, 1.23) 0.33 0.77 (0.50, 1.18) 0.23 0.77 (0.50, 1.19) 0.24
 Do not know 0.81 (0.33, 1.98) 0.65 0.67 (0.26, 1.70) 0.40 0.36 (0.12, 1.08) 0.07 0.36 (0.12, 1.08) 0.07
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h         
 High 1   1   1   1  
 Intermediate 2.76 (0.91, 8.37) 0.07 2.63 (0.87, 7.93) 0.08 2.19 (0.72, 6.68) 0.17 2.37 (0.76, 7.35) 0.14
 Low 1.88 (0.70, 5.00) 0.21 1.58 (0.60, 4.18) 0.35 1.11 (0.41, 3.02) 0.84 1.15 (0.42, 3.17) 0.78
 Do not know 0.57 (0.06, 5.47) 0.63 - - - - - -
Global P-value 0.44   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001  
n 5445   5437   5307   5300  
OWN EDUCATION         
< 5 h vs. 7 h         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10–12) 1.86 (1.21, 2.86) 0.005 1.78 (1.14, 2.78) 0.01 1.67 (1.02, 2.73) 0.04 1.60 (0.97, 2.64) 0.07
 low (7–9) 2.31 (1.46, 3.64) 0.0003 2.17 (1.36, 3.48) 0.001 2.03 (1.19, 3.46) 0.009 1.84 (1.07, 3.16) 0.03
 very low (< 7) 2.55 (1.46, 4.44) 0.001 2.25 (1.27, 3.97) 0.005 1.53 (0.79, 2.98) 0.21 1.27 (0.64, 2.53) 0.50
5 h vs. 7 h         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10–12) 2.37 (1.44, 3.91) 0.0007 2.25 (1.36, 3.71) 0.002 2.11 (1.22, 3.63) 0.007 1.97 (1.15, 3.38) 0.01
 low (7–9) 2.27 (1.36, 3.79) 0.002 2.10 (1.24, 3.56) 0.006 1.79 (0.97, 3.31) 0.06 1.54 (0.84, 2.82) 0.16
 very low (< 7) 2.29 (1.14, 4.60) 0.02 2.02 (1.03, 3.97) 0.04 1.54 (0.73, 3.24) 0.25 1.27 (0.60, 2.69) 0.53
6 h vs. 7 h         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10–12) 1.10 (0.87, 1.38) 0.42 1.07 (0.85, 1.35) 0.56 1.03 (0.81, 1.33) 0.79 1.02 (0.79, 1.31) 0.88
 low (7–9) 1.29 (0.99, 1.68) 0.06 1.26 (0.96, 1.63) 0.09 1.23 (0.91, 1.66) 0.17 1.20 (0.88, 1.62) 0.24
 very low (< 7) 1.61 (1.06, 2.43) 0.02 1.54 (1.01, 2.34) 0.05 1.39 (0.87, 2.23) 0.17 1.34 (0.83, 2.15) 0.23
8 h vs. 7 h         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10–12) 0.89 (0.75, 1.07) 0.21 0.89 (0.74, 1.06) 0.18 0.85 (0.71, 1.02) 0.09 0.85 (0.71, 1.02) 0.08
 low (7–9) 1.01 (0.83, 1.22) 0.95 0.98 (0.81, 1.19) 0.83 0.92 (0.74, 1.15) 0.46 0.92 (0.74, 1.14) 0.44
 very low (< 7) 1.07 (0.78, 1.47) 0.68 1.01 (0.73, 1.42) 0.93 0.86 (0.59, 1.27) 0.45 0.85 (0.57, 1.25) 0.40
9 h vs. 7 h         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10–12) 0.85 (0.65, 1.11) 0.23 0.85 (0.64, 1.11) 0.23 0.87 (0.64, 1.18) 0.37 0.86 (0.64, 1.16) 0.33
 low (7–9) 1.09 (0.81, 1.46) 0.57 1.05 (0.78, 1.40) 0.76 0.92 (0.66, 1.28) 0.62 0.91 (0.65, 1.27) 0.57
 very low (< 7) 1.46 (0.82, 2.60) 0.20 1.31 (0.73, 2.35) 0.37 0.92 (0.50, 1.72) 0.80 0.90 (0.48, 1.67) 0.73
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h         
 high (> 12) 1   1   1   1  
 medium (10–12) 1.55 (0.96, 2.51) 0.07 1.42 (0.87, 2.31) 0.16 1.26 (0.72, 2.20) 0.43 1.19 (0.68, 2.10) 0.55
 low (7–9) 1.84 (1.17, 2.92) 0.009 1.54 (0.98, 2.44) 0.06 1.03 (0.56, 1.90) 0.93 0.90 (0.48, 1.69) 0.74
 very low (< 7) 2.69 (1.46, 4.96) 0.002 2.19 (1.15, 4.15) 0.02 1.41 (0.65, 3.02) 0.38 1.18 (0.53, 2.61) 0.68
Global P-value <0.0001   0.0003   0.03   0.05  
n 5560   5550   5307   5300  
HOUSEHOLD INCOME LEVEL         
< 5 h vs. 7 h         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 1.28 (0.87, 1.86) 0.21 1.38 (0.93, 2.05) 0.11 1.25 (0.81, 1.92) 0.32 1.26 (0.81, 1.95) 0.30
 2nd 1.63 (1.09, 2.42) 0.02 1.68 (1.13, 2.51) 0.01 1.33 (0.81, 2.18) 0.26 1.27 (0.77, 2.10) 0.34
 lowest income quartile 1.87 (1.27, 2.77) 0.002 1.74 (1.14, 2.65) 0.01 1.34 (0.81, 2.21) 0.25 1.28 (0.77, 2.12) 0.34
5 h vs. 7 h         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 1.24 (0.72, 2.12) 0.44 1.39 (0.81, 2.38) 0.23 1.11 (0.63, 1.96) 0.72 1.07 (0.61, 1.89) 0.82
 2nd 1.54 (0.92, 2.58) 0.10 1.63 (0.96, 2.76) 0.07 1.29 (0.73, 2.30) 0.38 1.23 (0.69, 2.19) 0.48
 lowest income quartile 2.29 (1.38, 3.81) 0.002 2.25 (1.33, 3.82) 0.003 1.68 (0.91, 3.11) 0.09 1.55 (0.84, 2.87) 0.16
6 h vs. 7 h         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 1.17 (0.90, 1.52) 0.24 1.25 (0.94, 1.65) 0.12 1.21 (0.91, 1.61) 0.19 1.20 (0.90, 1.59) 0.21
 2nd 1.29 (1.00, 1.65) 0.05 1.34 (1.03, 1.75) 0.03 1.25 (0.93, 1.67) 0.13 1.23 (0.92, 1.64) 0.17
 lowest income quartile 1.56 (1.20, 2.02) 0.0008 1.50 (1.13, 1.99) 0.005 1.39 (0.98, 1.97) 0.06 1.36 (0.96, 1.91) 0.08
8 h vs. 7 h         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 1.19 (1.01, 1.40) 0.04 1.21 (1.03, 1.44) 0.02 1.21 (1.01, 1.44) 0.04 1.20 (1.01, 1.44) 0.04
 2nd 1.18 (0.99, 1.41) 0.07 1.20 (1.01, 1.44) 0.04 1.17 (0.96, 1.43) 0.12 1.17 (0.96, 1.43) 0.12
 lowest income quartile 1.31 (1.07, 1.60) 0.009 1.36 (1.10, 1.68) 0.005 1.32 (1.03, 1.70) 0.03 1.31 (1.02, 1.68) 0.04
9 h vs. 7 h         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 1.56 (1.16, 2.11) 0.004 1.66 (1.23, 2.24) 0.0009 1.47 (1.07, 2.00) 0.02 1.47 (1.08, 2.01) 0.01
 2nd 1.59 (1.15, 2.19) 0.005 1.67 (1.21, 2.32) 0.002 1.20 (0.80, 1.78) 0.38 1.19 (0.80, 1.77) 0.40
 lowest income quartile 2.31 (1.69, 3.15) <0.0001 2.47 (1.77, 3.44) <0.0001 1.67 (1.11, 2.50) 0.01 1.65 (1.10, 2.48) 0.01
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h         
 Highest income quartile 1   1   1   1  
 3rd 1.41 (0.76, 2.61) 0.27 1.72 (0.92, 3.20) 0.09 1.16 (0.61, 2.20) 0.65 1.13 (0.60, 2.12) 0.71
 2nd 3.17 (1.84, 5.46) <0.0001 3.66 (2.09, 6.40) <0.0001 1.75 (0.96, 3.20) 0.07 1.60 (0.88, 2.92) 0.12
 lowest income quartile 5.02 (2.83, 8.89) <0.0001 5.29 (2.90, 9.65) <0.0001 2.20 (1.12, 4.32) 0.02 1.99 (1.02, 3.87) 0.04
Global P-value <0.0001   <0.0001   0.20   0.34  
n 5453   5453   5307   5300  
EMPLOYMENT STATUS         
< 5 h vs. 7 h         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 1.82 (1.07, 3.09) 0.03 1.65 (0.97, 2.81) 0.06 1.34 (0.75, 2.39) 0.32 1.15 (0.65, 2.04) 0.63
 Disability pension 2.02 (1.16, 3.51) 0.01 1.92 (1.10, 3.34) 0.02 1.53 (0.81, 2.89) 0.19 1.17 (0.62, 2.20) 0.62
 Old age retirement 1.29 (0.74, 2.23) 0.37 1.29 (0.74, 2.24) 0.36 1.04 (0.57, 1.91) 0.89 1.01 (0.54, 1.88) 0.98
 Other pension 1.28 (0.61, 2.70) 0.52 1.21 (0.57, 2.55) 0.62 1.07 (0.49, 2.33) 0.86 1.06 (0.48, 2.37) 0.88
 Other 1.23 (0.43, 3.51) 0.69 1.25 (0.43, 3.60) 0.69 1.00 (0.30, 3.29) 1.00 0.93 (0.28, 3.12) 0.90
5 h vs. 7 h         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 1.76 (0.93, 3.35) 0.08 1.64 (0.87, 3.09) 0.13 1.21 (0.63, 2.31) 0.57 0.99 (0.52, 1.89) 0.98
 Disability pension 2.54 (1.32, 4.88) 0.005 2.52 (1.31, 4.82) 0.005 2.08 (1.07, 4.03) 0.03 1.40 (0.71, 2.77) 0.33
 Old age retirement 1.37 (0.70, 2.70) 0.36 1.42 (0.72, 2.80) 0.31 1.13 (0.56, 2.28) 0.74 0.97 (0.47, 1.99) 0.94
 Other pension 0.46 (0.11, 1.87) 0.27 0.44 (0.10, 1.86) 0.26 0.37 (0.09, 1.51) 0.17 0.36 (0.09, 1.47) 0.15
 Other 1.29 (0.35, 4.68) 0.70 1.44 (0.40, 5.26) 0.58 1.40 (0.39, 5.05) 0.61 1.25 (0.39, 4.02) 0.71
6 h vs. 7 h         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 1.09 (0.74, 1.60) 0.66 0.99 (0.67, 1.46) 0.94 0.85 (0.56, 1.30) 0.46 0.84 (0.55, 1.28) 0.42
 Disability pension 1.50 (1.05, 2.15) 0.03 1.39 (0.96, 1.99) 0.08 1.12 (0.77, 1.61) 0.55 1.04 (0.72, 1.52) 0.82
 Old age retirement 1.22 (0.89, 1.68) 0.22 1.18 (0.85, 1.65) 0.32 0.97 (0.67, 1.39) 0.86 0.97 (0.68, 1.40) 0.89
 Other pension 0.68 (0.35, 1.31) 0.25 0.65 (0.33, 1.27) 0.21 0.62 (0.31, 1.24) 0.18 0.62 (0.31, 1.24) 0.18
 Other 1.13 (0.64, 2.00) 0.67 1.20 (0.68, 2.13) 0.53 1.08 (0.59, 1.97) 0.80 1.07 (0.59, 1.94) 0.82
8 h vs. 7 h         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 1.17 (0.93, 1.48) 0.18 1.17 (0.93, 1.47) 0.19 1.02 (0.79, 1.31) 0.89 1.02 (0.79, 1.31) 0.90
 Disability pension 1.40 (1.06, 1.85) 0.02 1.41 (1.06, 1.86) 0.02 1.31 (0.97, 1.77) 0.08 1.31 (0.96, 1.79) 0.09
 Old age retirement 1.55 (1.16, 2.07) 0.003 1.60 (1.21, 2.14) 0.001 1.45 (1.08, 1.94) 0.01 1.45 (1.09, 1.94) 0.01
 Other pension 1.21 (0.75, 1.96) 0.43 1.20 (0.75, 1.93) 0.45 1.12 (0.69, 1.81) 0.65 1.12 (0.69, 1.82) 0.64
 Other 1.69 (1.16, 2.45) 0.006 1.68 (1.15, 2.46) 0.007 1.60 (1.07, 2.37) 0.02 1.61 (1.08, 2.39) 0.02
9 h vs. 7 h         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 2.19 (1.49, 3.21) 0.0001 2.10 (1.43, 3.09) 0.0002 1.90 (1.23, 2.92) 0.003 1.87 (1.22, 2.87) 0.004
 Disability pension 4.24 (2.55, 7.05) <0.0001 4.07 (2.44, 6.79) <0.0001 3.85 (2.29, 6.48) <0.0001 3.62 (2.13, 6.15) <0.0001
 Old age retirement 5.62 (3.33, 9.48) <0.0001 5.61 (3.34, 9.43) <0.0001 5.49 (3.11, 9.67) <0.0001 5.46 (3.11, 9.60) <0.0001
 Other pension 2.75 (1.32, 5.72) 0.007 2.38 (1.14, 4.95) 0.02 2.27 (1.06, 4.88) 0.03 2.24 (1.04, 4.83) 0.04
 Other 3.40 (2.28, 5.09) <0.0001 3.34 (2.20, 5.06) <0.0001 3.09 (2.02, 4.74) <0.0001 3.08 (2.00, 4.74) <0.0001
≥ 10 h vs. 7 h         
 Working 1   1   1   1  
 Unemployed 7.22 (4.00, 13.0) <0.0001 6.11 (3.39, 11.0) <0.0001 4.60 (2.45, 8.64) <0.0001 4.10 (2.19, 7.67) <0.0001
 Disability pension 17.3 (9.29, 32.3) <0.0001 15.2 (8.16, 28.2) <0.0001 12.5 (6.51, 24.2) <0.0001 9.53 (4.85, 18.7) <0.0001
 Old age retirement 10.3 (5.24, 20.3) <0.0001 11.1 (5.57, 22.2) <0.0001 9.21 (4.43, 19.2) <0.0001 9.23 (4.34, 19.6) <0.0001
 Other pension 5.31 (1.82, 15.5) 0.002 3.92 (1.16, 13.3) 0.03 3.80 (1.09, 13.3) 0.04 3.70 (1.07, 12.8) 0.04
 Other 9.14 (4.51, 18.5) <0.0001 11.4 (5.75, 22.7) <0.0001 8.58 (3.88, 19.0) <0.0001 8.27 (3.78, 18.1) <0.0001
Global P-value <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001   <0.0001  
n 5578   5568   5307   5300