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Table 2 Associations between living environment variables and child IQ status

From: The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

Living environment N Low IQ F (%) High IQ F (%) POR Pvaluea
Mental stress domain      
Unstable security situation      
Frequently 121 29 (24) 92 (76) 1.26 0.33
Occasionally 345 71 (20.6) 274 (79.4) 1.54  
Never 63 18 (28.6) 45 (71.4)   
Worry about child safety      
Frequently 171 47 (27.5) 124 (72.5) 0.75 0.11
Occasionally 268 51 (19) 217 (81) 1.21  
Never 90 20 (22.2) 411 (77.8)   
Child witnessed any type of explosion      
Frequently 18 9(50.0) 9 (50.0) 0.22 <0.01
Occasionally 245 60(24.5) 185 (75.5) 0.69  
Never 266 49(18.4) 217 (81.6)   
Think of leaving house      
Frequently 57 15 (26.3) 42 (73.7) 0.68 0.43
Occasionally 258 61 (23.6) 197 (76.4) 0.78  
Never 214 42 (19.6) 172 (80.4)   
Living area is insecure      
Frequently 35 14 (40.0) 21 (60.0) 0.36 0.02
Occasionally 283 63 (22.3) 220 (77.7) 0.84  
Never 211 41 (19.4) 170 (80.6)   
Physical safety domain      
Hear gun shots      
Frequently 91 19 (20.9) 72 (79.1) 1.17 0.90
Occasionally 349 78 (22.3) 271 (77.7) 1.07  
Never 89 21 (23.6) 68 (76.4)   
Hear explosions      
Frequently 86 16 (18.6) 70 (81.4) 0.98 0.30
Occasionally 345 84 (24.3) 261 (75.7) 0.69  
Never 98 18 (18.4) 80 (81.6)   
See dead bodies      
Frequently 6 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3) 0.10 <0.01
Occasionally 130 45 (34.6) 85 (65.4) 0.40  
Never 393 69 (17.6) 324 (82.4)   
Child missed school      
Frequently 28 16 (57.1) 12 (42.9) 0.20 <0.01
Occasionally 321 64 (19.9) 257 (80.1) 1.07  
Never 180 38 (21.1) 142 (78.9)   
Problem in going to school every day?      
Frequently 33 21 (63.6) 12 (36.4) 0.11 <0.01
Occasionally 253 55 (21.7) 198 (78.3) 0.75  
Never 243 42 (17.3) 201 (82.7)   
Services domain      
Electricity supply      
< 4 hours per day 110 43 (39.1) 67 (60.9) 0.40 <0.01
4 – 8 hours per day 241 38 (15.8) 203 (84.2) 1.40  
> 8 hours per day 178 37 (20.8) 141 (79.2)   
Water quality      
Below average 66 22 (33.3) 44 (66.7) 0.40 <0.01
Average 242 59 (24.4) 183 (75.6) 0.62  
Good 221 37 (16.7) 184 (83.3)   
Problems in getting food      
Frequently 19 9 (47.4) 10 (52.6) 0.24 <0.01
Occasionally 213 56 (26.3) 157 (73.7) 0.60  
Never 297 53 (17.8) 244 (82.2)   
  1. a Pearson chi-squared test.
  2. POR: prevalence odds ratio.