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Table 1 Participants’ sociodemographic characteristics by IQ stat

From: The negative impact of living environment on intelligence quotient of primary school children in Baghdad City, Iraq: a cross-sectional study

Variable N low IQ N (%) High IQ N (%) POR(95%CI) P-value
Gender      
Male 276 55 (19.9) 221 (80.1) 0.75 (0.49-1.13) 0.17
Female 253 63 (24.9) 190 (75.1)   
Mother’s education      
Low education 92 26 (28.3) 66 (71.7) 1.41 (0.89-2.46) 0.12
High education 433 91 (21.0) 342 (79.0)   
Father’s education      
Low education 62 14 (22.6) 48 (77.4) 1.17 (0.61-2.22) 0.62
High education 427 85 (19.9) 342 (80.1)   
Living environment status      
Bad 102 52 (51.0) 50 (49.0) 5.66 (3.56-9.08) <0.01 a
Acceptable 427 66 (15.5) 361 (84.5)   
Family income      
Low income 267 74 (27.7) 193 (72.3) 1.90 (1.24-2.89) 0.003 a
High income 262 44 (16.8) 218 (83.2)   
  1. a Pearson chi-squared, significant at p < 0.05.
  2. POR: prevalence odds ratio.
  3. Low education is illiterate or primary school education, high education is secondary or university education.