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Table 4 Multivariate associations between physical work-environment factors and musculoskeletal pain

From: Physical and psychosocial work environment factors and their association with health outcomes in Danish ambulance personnel – a cross-sectional study

    Pain in neck, arm and shoulder Pain in low back
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Demographics
Sex Men Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Women   1.42 (0.93–2.17) 1.40 (0.90–2.18) 1.47 (0.96–2.25) 1.47 (0.94–2.29)
Age    1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 1.01 (0.99–1.01) 1.01 (1.00–1.02)
Physical work environment factors (daily exposure yes/no)
Lift very heavy loads (more than 20 kg)? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.64 (1.24–2.16) 1.01 (0.74–1.38) 1.61 (1.21–2.12) 1.06 (0.77–1.44)
Lift in an awkward posture? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.91 (1.53–2.38) 1.17 (0.88–1.56) 2.01 (1.61–2.51) 1.40 (1.04–1.86)
Not enough room around you to perform your work properly? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.87 (1.51–2.33) 1.15 (0.86–1.53) 1.68 (1.36–2.09) 1.05 (0.79–1.41)
Perform short, but maximal force-exertions? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   2.04 (1.67–2.50) 1.41 (1.11–1.80) 1.79 (1.46–2.19) 1.29 (1.01–1.64)
Lift a load that is hard to hold? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   2.03 (1.65–2.50) 1.30 (1.00–1.68) 1.86 (1.51–2.28) 1.26 (0.97–1.62)
Make sudden, unexpected movements? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.74 (1.42–2.14) 1.13 (0.88–1.47) 1.72 (1.40–2.11) 1.13 (0.87–1.46)
Difficulty in exerting enough force because of uncomfortable postures? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.92 (1.56–2.36) 1.18 (0.88–1.58) 1.63 (1.32–2.00) 1.01 (0.76–1.36)
Not enough room above you to perform your work properly? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.50 (1.21–1.86) 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 1.34 (1.09–1.66) 0.90 (0.69–1.17)
Too few facilities to lean on during work? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   1.75 (1.40–2.19) 1.12 (0.85–1.48) 1.82 (1.45–2.28) 1.29 (0.98–1.70)
Slip or fall during your work? No Ref 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Yes   2.12 (1.21–3.70) 1.46 (0.80–2.68) 2.38 (1.36–4.15) 1.40 (0.78–2.54)
Hosmer Lemeshow Goodness of fit     Chi2 = 1541   Chi2 = 1547
p = 0.424 p = 0.384
Nagelkerke Pseudo R2     0.05   0.04
Model 1: Adjusted for sex, age, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Marital status & Alcohol consumption.       
Model 2: Model 1 adjusted for all other physical work-environment indicators.       
  1. Odds ratios with 95% Confidence Intervals.