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Table 2 An ecological perspective: levels of influence

From: The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Levels Definition
Intrapersonal Level Individual characteristics that influence behavior, such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personality traits
Interpersonal Level Interpersonal processes and primary groups, including family, friends, and peers that provide social identity, support, and role definition
Community Level  
Institutional Factors Rules, regulations, policies, and informal structures, which may constrain or promote recommended behaviors
Community Factors Social networks and norms, or standards, which exist as formal or informal among individuals, groups, and organizations
Public Policy Local, state, and federal policies and laws that regulate or support healthy actions and practices for disease prevention, early detection, control, and management
  1. Source: National Cancer Institute. Theory at a glance. Available at (Cited May 13, 2011).