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Table 2 Results of meta-analysis of the studies on association between factors and suicide in Chinese population

From: Factors associated with suicidal behaviors in mainland China: a meta-analysis

Factors No. of studies No. of participants Variance between studies Pooled OR 95% CI Test for overall effect (p)
Q(p) I2(%)
Suicide ideation
Demographic characteristics
Gender (female) 27 71546 <0.00001 88 1.43 1.25, 1.64 <0.00001
Rural residence 15 51850 <0.00001 78 0.99 0.87, 1.12 0.85
Lower education 9 33749 <0.00001 95 1.39 0.91,2.13 0. 13
Poor economy 8 13260 0.004 66 1.16 0.91,1.49 0.24
Psychiatric or psychological factors
Mood disorder 6 15842 <0.00001 86 5.12 3.78, 6.94 <0.00001
Socio-family environment
*Special family 8 11490 0.07 46 1.55 1.23, 1.96 <0.00001
One child in family 11 23486 0.04 47 1.04 0.96, 1.13 0.33
Poor relationship with families 2 2345 0.25 26 2.31 1.53, 3.54 0.0001
Poor academic achievement 6 9354 0.44 0 1.25 1.08, 1.44 0.003
Study pressure 3 12590 0.16 46 1.27 1.17,1.38 <0.00001
Lifestyle/Behaviors
Smoking 4 9197 0.21 34 1.67 1.45, 1.92 <0.00001
Alcohol 4 10437 0.17 41 1.96 1.69, 2.27 <0.00001
Drug use 3 5280 0.37 0 1.97 1.39, 2.80 0.0001
Stressful life events
Physical illness 9 22639 <0.00001 98 4.82 1.24, 18.68 0.01
Suicide of relatives 4 14163 0.002 80 3.02 1.81,5.04 <0. 0001
Suicide attempt
Demographic characteristics
Gender (female) 13 3462 <0.00001 79 1.09 0.80, 1.50 0.59
rural residence 7 12006 0.004 69 0.78 0.53, 1.15 0.21
Currently unmarried 5 24938 0.06 60 1.19 0.88, 1.60 0.27
Lower education 2 2954 0.05 75 1.24 0.80, 1.90 0.34
Psychiatric or psychological factors
Mood disorder 4 19277 <0.00001 88 2.74 1.31, 5.74 0.007
Socio-family environment
Poor relationship with families 4 15371 0.15 43 3.64 2.97, 4.47 <0.00001
One child in family 2 3100 0.69 0 1.77 1.26, 2.49 0.001
Lifestyle/Behaviors
Smoking 4 7995 0.18 39 1.79 1.36, 2.35 <0.0001
Alcohol use 3 7798 0.37 0 2.50 1.86, 3.36 <0.00001
Drug use 2 5889 0.23 30 7.33 4.60, 11.67 <0.00001
Stressful life events
Poor physical health 4 8685 0.04 65 2.44 0.93, 6.41 0.07
Suicide of relatives 3 13016 0.97 0 4.80 3.12, 7.39 <0.00001
Completed suicide
Demographic characteristics
Gender (female) 4 397382 <0.01 73 2.35 1. 15, 4.78 0.02
Lower education 4 398072 0.003 79 2.33 1.48, 3.66 0.0003
Residence(rural) 3 397337 0. 04 69 2.86 1.20, 6.84 0.02
Currently married 6 398710 <0.00001 96 1.14 0.50, 2.60 0.76
Psychiatric or psychological factors
Mood disorder 4 1757 0.9 0 30.54 20.46, 45.58 <0.00001
Stressful life events
Negative life event 3 1264 0.63 0 10.03 6.63, 15.19 <0.00001
Seeking help for mood disorder 2 1215 1.00 0 5.41 3.36, 8.71 <0.00001
Previous suicide attempt 2 1306 0.68 0 31.77 13.48, 74.91 <0.00001
Suicide of relatives 2 1218 0.79 0 4.55 3.03, 6.85 <0.00001
Pesticides stored at home 2 1543 0.60 0 1.92 1.55, 2.37 <0.00001
Change of life 3 1231 0.86 0 3.79 2.56, 5.61 <0.00001
  1. *Special family included reconstituted family, single-parent family, or non-parent family.
  2. Pooled data by a fixed effect model.
  3. Pooled data by a random effect model.