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Table 1 Exemplary text messages

From: Efficacy of a text messaging (SMS) based smoking cessation intervention for adolescents and young adults: Study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

HAPA stage Content category Exemplary text message
Preintentional Stage Social Norms Hey Mika. Did you know, not smoking is in! A survey from the University of Zurich found that among 16-to-17-year old female adolescents, only 11% still smoke cigarettes daily.
  Outcome Expectancies Hello Mika. You have the opinion, that after having stopped smoking you will be able to breathe deeply more easily again. That's totally correct! Already after the first weeks you are going to notice strong changes: you will be able to breathe more freely, will be fitter at sports and you will be less susceptible to diseases.
  Monetary costs of smoking You smoke approximately 8 cigarettes less in comparison to the beginning of the program SMS-COACH. Thus, you save approximately 70 Swiss francs per month.
Intentional Stage Social support for smoking cessation There are forums online in which smokers and ex-smokers exchange their experiences on smoking cessation. Have a look at www.stop-tabac.ch
  Preparing smoking cessation Hi Peter. Maybe you can avoid smoking cigarettes in situations in which you usually smoke by keeping yourself busy. For example, when having a break or waiting for the bus it can be extremely helpful to have a chewing gum or write an SMS.
Action Stage Reward for staying abstinent You can be proud of yourself to not smoke anymore. Reward yourself by buying something that you have desired for a long time.
  Coping with craving situations Great job, Vince: journals or a book can help you to bridge time when waiting. If there is a moment in which you have nothing readily to hand, you can also distract yourself by using your cell phone for calling somebody or sending a text message to someone.