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Table 2 Details of included studies for fortification of milk and cereal food

From: Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

Study Population Intervention Control food Outcome Comment
Author, year: Brown, 2007 [29] Design: RCT Country: Peru Target population: periurban area; Age (mean; range): 0.6; 0.5 to 0.7 years Males (%): 46 Exclusion criteria: risk of acute malnutrition; chronic diseases Cereals, fortified (porridge); single MN strategy MN applied a: Zn Iron dosage b: n.a.c mg/day; Iron compound d: n.a. porridge, unfortified for zink After 0.5 year: plasma zinc; anthropometry; infections Both groups recieved iron fortification and vitamin supplements, thus net intervention was zinc fortification.
Author, year: Daly, 1996 [31] Design: RCT Country: UK (74% white; 24% Afro-Caribbean; 2% Asian) Target population: poor innerurban Age (mean; range): 0.65; 0.5 to 0.7 years Males (%): 47 Exclusion criteria: preterm at birth Milk, fortified; multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, VitA, other Vitamins, other MN Iron dosage: 5.47 mg/day; Iron compound: no info milk, unfortified After 1 year: hematological parameters; anthropometry Functional outcome was extracted from related paper Williams_1999 [39].
Author, year: Faber, 2005 [33] Design: RCT Country: South Africa Target population: rural area, low socio-economic status, Age (mean; range): 0.7; 0.6 to 0.9 years Males (%): 51 Exclusion criteria: birth weight <2500 g, severe anemia Cereals, fortified (porridge); multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, Zn, other Vitamins Iron dosage: 27.5 mg/day; Iron compound: FeFu porridge, unfortified After 0.5 year: hematological parameters, serum retinol, zinc; growth; motor development Population baseline characteristics only for infants who completed the study.
Author, year: Gibson, 2011 [35] Design: RCT Country: Zambia Target population: middle income class Age (mean; range): 0.5; 0.5 to 0.5 years Males (%): 48 Exclusion criteria: "not in good health" Cereals, fortified (porridge); multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, Zn, other Vitamins, other MN Iron dosage: 5.36 mg/day; Iron compound: no info porridge, unfortified After 1 year: hematological parameters; serum zink, anthropometry; hospital referral; death; diarrhea; pneumonia; mental and motor development All children received VitA and Iodine by a public supplementation program. Some outcomes extracted from related paper (Chilenje_2010) [40] and (Manno_2011) [41].
Author, year: Gill, 1997 [24] Design: RCT Country: Ireland Target population: no info Age (mean; range): 0.5; 0.5 to 0.5 years Males (%): 51 Exclusion criteria: severe or chronic disaese, malnutrition; congenital anomalies Milk, fortified; single MN strategy MN applied: Fe Iron dosage: 6.54 mg/day; Iron compound: FeSu formula milk, unfortified for iron After 0.75 year: hematological parameters, anthropometry  
Author, year: Lartey, 1999 [34] Design: RCT Country: Ghana Target population: urban area Age (mean; range): 0.5; 0.5 to 0.5 years Males (%): 48 Exclusion criteria: congenital abnormalities Cereals, fortified (porridge); multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, Zn, VitA, other Vitamins, other MN Iron dosage: 14.25 mg/day; Iron compound: electrFe porridge, unfortified After 0.5 year: hematological parameters; anthropometry; diarrhea; fever; respiratory illness Intervention cereal with 2 formulations of fortification depending on daily cereal intake of infant to avoid potential toxicity problems.
Author, year: Liu, 1993 [37] Design: RCT Country: China Target population: all population classes (90% of all children) Age (mean; range): 0.8; 0.5 to 1.1 years Males (%): 55 Exclusion criteria: no info Cereals, fortified (rusk); multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, Zn, VitA, other Vitamins, other MN Iron dosage: 5 mg/day; Iron compound: FeAmCi rusk, unfortified After 0.25 year: hematological paramters; MN-serum levels, anthropometry  
Author, year: Maldonado Lonzano, 2007 [25] Design: RCT Country: Spain Target population: no info Age (mean; range): 1.9; (range: no info) years Males (%): 58 Exclusion criteria: iron supplementation Milk, fortified; multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, other Vitamins, other MN Iron dosage: 5.9 mg/day; Iron compound: no info milk, unfortified (cows whole milk formula) After 0.33 year: hematological parameters No child with anemia at baseline.
Author, year: Morley, 1999 [26] Design: RCT Country: UK (Indian ethnicity) Target population: mother with higher eduction, non-manual social class Age (mean; range): 0.78; (range: no info) years Males (%): 50 Exclusion criteria: relevant disease; iron supplementation Milk, fortified; single MN strategy MN applied: Fe Iron dosage: 1.8 mg/day; Iron compound: FeSu formula, unfortified After 0.75 year: hematological parameters, antropometry, motor and mental development Only data from Norwich cohort blood samples could be taken at baseline and were extracted for Hb outcome.
Author, year: Nesamvuni, 2005 [36] Design: RCT Country: South Africa Target population: poor socio-economic status, undernourished children Age (mean; range): no info; 1 to 3 years Males (%): 0 Exclusion criteria: physical or mental disability, severe undernutrition Cereals, fortified (maize porridge); dual MN strategy MN applied: VitA, other Vitamins Iron dosage: n.a.mg/day; Iron compound: n.a. maize meal, unfortified After 1 year: hematological parameters, retinol level, anthropometry Children and family members received the food.
Author, year: Oelofse, 2003 [9] Design: RCT Country: South Africa Target population: urban disadvantaged black community (low socioeconomic status) Age (mean; range): 0.5; (range: no info) years Males (%): 0 Exclusion criteria: birth weight < 2.5 kg; congenital abnormalities Cereals, fortified (porridge); dual MN strategy MN applied: Zn, other Vitamins Iron dosage: -0.8 mg/day; Iron compound: FePP normal diet After 0.5 year: hematological parameters, zinc level, retinol level, anthropometry, psychomotor development 90% of control group already recieved commercially prepared complementatry food. The food concentration of iron did not relevanlty differ between groups, but of Zinc and of VitA.
Author, year: Rivera, 2010 [10] Design: RCT (accounted for cluster randomisation) Country: Mexico Target population: households living in poverty Age (mean; range): no info; 1 to 2.5 years Males (%): 50 Exclusion criteria: no info Milk, fortified; multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, Zn, other Vitamins, other MN Iron dosage: 7.82 mg/day; Iron compound: FeGlu milk, non-fortified After 1 year: hematological parameters Study results are adjusted for cluster effect. Evaluation of a large scale program (Leche Lincosa) in Mexico.
Author, year: Sazawal, 2010 [8] Design: RCT Country: India Target population: periurban area; illiteracy of parents Age (mean; range): 1.9; 1 to 3 years Males (%): 50 Exclusion criteria: severe malnutrition; severe illness Milk, fortified; multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, Zn, VitA, other Vitamins, other MN Iron dosage: 8.3 mg/day; Iron compound: FeSu milk, unfortified After 1 year: hematological parameters, anthropometry, severe illnesses, diarrhoea, lower respiratory tract infections, pneumonia Some data extracted from relating paper: Sazawal_2006 [42] Completeness relates to hematologic parameters.
Author, year: Schümann, 2005 [38] Design: RCT Country: Guatemala Target population: low income; periurban settlement Age (mean; range): 1.7; 1 to 2 years Males (%): 52 Exclusion criteria: gastric or intestinal diseases; infections Cereals, fortified (bean paste); single MN strategy MN applied: Fe Iron dosage: 17.1 mg/day; Iron compound: FeSu beans, unfortified After 0.19 year: hematological parameters All children recieved anthelmintic treatment; all families were compensated. Three arm trial: Only data for FeSu group (n = 31) vs. control group (n = 30) extracted.
Author, year: Stevens, 1998 [32] Design: RCT Country: UK (mostly caucasian) Target population: lower social classes were overrepresented Age (mean; range): 0.5; 0 to 0 years Males (%): 0 Exclusion criteria: illness, major congenital malformation Milk, fortified; single MN strategy MN applied: Fe Iron dosage: 6.87 mg/day; Iron compound: FeSu milk, unfortified After 1 year: hematological parameters  
Author, year: Villalpando, 2006 [27] Design: RCT Country: Mexico Target population: poor periurban community Age (mean; range): 1.8; 0.8 to 2.5 years Males (%): 50 Exclusion criteria: no info Milk, fortified; multi MN strategy MN applied: Fe, Zn, other Vitamins Iron dosage: 6.74 mg/day; Iron compound: FeGlu milk, unfortified After 0.5 year: hematological parameters The results of the study lead to broadening of a fortified milk distribution program in Mexico.
Author, year: Virtanen, 2001 [28] Design: RCT Country: Sweden Target population: urban area Age (mean; range): 1; 1 to 1 years Males (%): 39 Exclusion criteria: milk intolerance; poor health Milk, fortified; single MN strategy MN applied: Fe Iron dosage: 4.53 mg/day; Iron compound: FeGlu, FeLac milk, unfortified After 0.5 year: hematological parameters  
Author, year: Walter, 1998 [30] Design: RCT Country: Chile Target population: From four contiguos urban communities Age (mean; range): 0.5; 0 to 0 years Males (%): 52 Exclusion criteria: major birth or neonatal complications, chronic illness Milk, fortified; single MN strategy MN applied: Fe Iron dosage: 6.5 mg/day; Iron compound: FeSu formula, low iron fortifed After 1 year: hematological parameters, anthropometry  
  1. a MN (micronutrient) applied: Fe: iron; Zn: zinc; VitA: Vitamin A; other Vitamins: e.g. Vitamin C; other MN (micronutirents): e.g. selen, copper.
  2. b Iron dosage: Determined as daily difference between intervention and control group.
  3. c n.a.: not applicable
  4. d Iron compound: FeSu: iron-sulfate; FePP: iron-pyrophosphate; NaFeEDTA: natrium-iron-EDTA; FeFu: iron-fumarate; FeGlu: iron-gluconate; FeAmCi: ferric-ammonium-citrate; FeLa: Ferrous lactate; electrFe: electrolytic iron.