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Table 2 Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of coronary heart disease or stroke for differences in neighborhood greenness for the 11,404 adults in the study population. Adjustment was made by cumulative inclusion of risk factors

From: The association between neighborhood greenness and cardiovascular disease: an observational study

  Model A Model B Model C Model D Model E Model F
Adjustment No adjustment Sociodemographics Sociodemographics Sociodemographics Sociodemographics Sociodemographics
    Biological factors Biological factors Biological factors Biological factors
     Behavioral factors Behavioral factors Behavioral factors
      Air quality Air quality
       All greenness
Self-reported medical diagnosis with coronary heart disease or stroke
Sample size (N) 11,374 9,216 7,216 5,903 5,903 5,903
Mean greenness (NDVI) in 1600 m service area
Low 1 1 1 1 1 1
Moderate 0.91 (0.79, 1.05) 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) 0.83 (0.69, 1.00) 0.83 (0.68, 1.02) 0.83 (0.68, 1.02) 0.84 (0.69, 1.02)
High 1.09 (0.95, 1.24) 0.98 (0.84, 1.15) 1.01 (0.85, 1.22) 0.92 (0.75, 1.13) 0.92 (0.75, 1.13) 0.94 (0.76, 1.15)
Linear increase 0.98 (0.93, 1.04) 0.97 (0.90, 1.03) 0.98 (0.91, 1.05) 0.98 (0.93, 1.04) 0.93 (0.85, 1.01) 0.93 (0.85, 1.01)
Standard deviation (SD) of greenness (NDVI) in 1600 m service area
Low 1 1 1 1 1 1
Moderate 0.84 (0.74, 0.97) 0.71 (0.60, 0.83) 0.70 (0.58, 0.84) 0.76 (0.62, 0.93) 0.76 (0.62, 0.93) 0.76 (0.62, 0.94)
High 0.91 (0.80, 1.04) 0.83 (0.70, 0.97) 0.83 (0.69, 0.99) 0.84 (0.68, 1.02) 0.84 (0.68, 1.03) 0.84 (0.68, 1.03)
Linear increase 0.94 (0.88, 1.01) 0.89 (0.82, 0.97) 0.90 (0.82, 0.99) 0.91 (0.82, 1.01) 0.91 (0.82, 1.01) 0.91 (0.82, 1.02)
Hospital admission with coronary heart disease or stroke
Sample size (N) 11,198 8,901 6,941 5,637 5,637 5,637
Mean greenness (NDVI) in 1600 m service area
Low 1 1 1 1 1 1
Moderate 1.16 (0.90, 1.50) 0.88 (0.65, 1.17) 0.87 (0.64, 1.19) 0.92 (0.65, 1.30) 0.92 (0.65, 1.30) 0.90 (0.63, 1.27)
High 1.11 (0.86, 1.44) 0.95 (0.71, 1.28) 0.82 (0.59, 1.13) 0.85 (0.58, 1.24) 0.85 (0.58, 1.24) 0.87 (0.60, 1.27)
Linear increase 0.98 (0.88, 1.08) 0.94 (0.83, 1.06) 0.89 (0.77, 1.02) 0.90 (0.77, 1.05) 0.90 (0.77, 1.05) 0.90 (0.77, 1.05)
Standard deviation (SD) of greenness (NDVI) in 1600 m service area
Low 1 1 1 1 1 1
Moderate 1.01 (0.79, 1.30) 0.92 (0.69, 1.23) 0.92 (0.68, 1.24) 0.87 (0.61, 1.22) 0.85 (0.60, 1.20) 0.85 (0.60, 1.21)
High 0.90 (0.69, 1.16) 0.81 (0.60, 1.09) 0.71 (0.51, 0.99) 0.66 (0.45, 0.96) 0.63 (0.43, 0.92) 0.63 (0.43, 0.92)
Linear increase 0.94 (0.82, 1.07) 0.92 (0.79, 1.07) 0.89 (0.74, 1.05) 0.84 (0.70, 1.02) 0.82 (0.68, 1.00) 0.82 (0.68, 1.00)
  1. Tertiles for mean greenness: Low (mean NDVI < 0.068, reference level), Moderate (0.068 ≤ mean NDVI ≤ 0.096), High (mean NDVI > 0.096).
  2. Tertiles for standard deviation (SD) of greenness: Low (SD NDVI < 0.097, reference level), Moderate (0.097 ≤ SD NDVI ≤ 0.109), High (SD NDVI > 0.109).
  3. Linear increase: per Inter Quartile Range (IQR) increase in mean NDVI (IQR = 0.043) and SD NDVI (IQR = 0.020).
  4. Sociodemographics factors: age, sex, education, income, possession of a healthcare card.
  5. Biological factors: diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, BMI.
  6. Behavioral factors: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, high-risk alcohol consumption, smoking.
  7. Air quality: total length of main roads within the service area is used as a proxy for air quality.
  8. All greenness: the model included terms for both mean and SD of NDVI.
  9. Hospital admissions were for a 3-year period centered on the year of completion of the Health and Wellbeing Survey.
  10. Bold text indicates statistical significance at the 5% (α) level.