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Table 4 Multivariate Analysis of Socio-Demographic variables and stigma with Depression and Quality of Life

From: Association between stigma, depression and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in South India – a community based cross sectional study

Variables Stigma Depression Quality of Life
  OR 95% CI P Value OR 95% CI P Value OR 95% CI P Value
Age
< = 30     1.21 0.45–3.27 0.710    
31–40     0.63 0.27–1.50 0.299    
> = 41     1.00      
Gender
Male 0.82 0.45–1.50 0.526       
Female 1.00         
Education
Non- literate 2.33 1.20–4.51 0.012     2.01 0.92–4.39 0.080
Primary/secondary 2.25 1.21–4.20 0.011     1.33 0.60–2.95 0.477
High School & above 1.00       1.00   
Marital Status
Unmarried 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Married 1.34 0.66–2.74 0.417 5.79 1.81–18.54 0.003 0.72 0.33–1.59 0.419
Sep/Widowed/Divorce 1.30 0.58–2.90 0.529 1.98 0.56–6.93 0.287 0.85 0.39–1.87 0.685
Occupation
Casual Labourer 1.48 0.77–2.82 0.237     2.99 1.37–6.51 0.006
Agriculture 1.99 0.82–4.84 0.125     1.36 0.47–3.95 0.572
Skilled and semiskilled 1.57 0.79–3.18 0.207     1.52 0.64–3.66 0.344
Sex work 0.74 0.27–2.01 0.555     2.66 0.88–8.03 0.083
Others 1.00       1.00   
Income
< = 2000        2.53 1.02–6.23 0.044
2000–3000        1.67 0.77–3.65 0.194
3001 +        1.00   
Alcohol
Every day or 2-3 times in a week 0.40 0.13–1.24 0.112       
At least once in week 0.74 0.28–1.93 0.535       
Did not drink in the last 4 week 0.51 0.24–1.06 0.072       
Never 1.00         
Access to Care: ART centers
Yes 2.25 1.24–4.10 0.008 0.94 0.44–2.03 0.884 2.17 1.13–4.15 0.019
No 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Drop in Centers
Yes 1.47 0.83–2.61 0.182 0.59 0.26–1.38 0.225 0.90 0.46–1.77 0.760
No 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Comprehensive continuum of HIV care
Yes 0.81 0.44–1.48 0.495       
No 1.00         
Disclosure concerns
No/Moderate     1.00    1.00   
Severe     0.59 0.26–1.35 0.212 1.49 0.80–2.75 0.207
Self-Stigma
No/Moderate     1.00    1.00   
Severe     3.42 1.67–6.99 0.001 0.73 0.36–1.47 0.381
Negative stigma
No/Moderate     1.00    1.00   
Severe     2.07 1.02–4.18 0.042 0.53 0.26–1.07 0.075
Public Attitude
No/Moderate     1.00    1.00   
Severe     1.76 0.76–4.07 0.185 0.79 0.37–1.70 0.559
Depression
Severe        2.73 1.11–6.71 0.028
Others        1.00   
Member of any Association
Yes 0.77 0.46–1.28 0.311 1.00    1.81 0.96–3.41 0.067
No 1.00    4.10 1.90–9.10 0.001 1.00   
Social Support
Low 1.92 0.94–3.90 0.071 1.81 0.73–4.49 0.199 12.12 4.30–34.11 0.001
Moderate 1.77 0.85–3.71 0.127 0.78 0.28–2.20 0.645 3.30 1.13–9.63 0.029
High 1.00    1.00    1.00