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Table 4 Associations of nationality with various factors (n = 1,559): odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and contribution (%) of confounders

From: School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health

  Grade repetition Low school performance School dropout ideation
OR 95% CI %a OR 95% CI % OR 95% CI %
Odds ratio (OR 1 ) adjusted for gender and age
 French 1.00 1.00 1.00
 European immigrants 2.44** 1.22-4.91 100 1.34 0.52-3.45 - 1.75 0.52-5.88 -
 Non-European immigrants 3.29*** 1.71-6.33 100 3.02** 1.52-6.02 100 3.42** 1.38-8.48 100
Odds ratio (OR 2 ) with further adjustment for father’s occupation and family structure
 French 1.00 1.00 1.00
 European immigrants 2.10* b 1.03-4.31 24 1.04 b 0.39-2.74 - 1.45 a 0.42-4.98 -
 Non-European immigrants 2.40* b 1.20-4.81 39 2.22* b 1.07-4.62 40 2.64* a 1.02-6.83 32
Odds ratio (OR 3 ) with further adjustment for WHOQoL-Bref domains and unhealthy behaviours
 French 1.00 1.00 1.00
 European immigrants 1.76 0.83-3.70 47 0.77 0.28-2.12 - 1.35 0.38-4.83 -
 Non-European immigrants 1.78 0.86-3.68 66 1.54 0.68-3.51 73 1.54 0.49-4.78 78
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  2. Bold types: significant ORs.
  3. a % = Reduction (positive %) or increase (negative %) in OR computed with the following formula: (OR1 – OR2)/(OR1 – 1) or (OR1 – OR3)/(OR1 – 1); calculated for OR1 significant only.
  4. b Adding insufficient income to the model did not change the ORs.