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Table 3 Associations of school difficulties with various factors (n = 1,559): gender-age-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval

From: School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health

  Grade repetition Low school performance School dropout ideation
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Nationality
 French 1.00 1.00 1.00
 European immigrants 2.44** 1.22-4.91 1.34 0.52-3.45 1.75 0.52-5.88
 Non-European immigrants 3.29*** 1.71-6.33 3.02** 1.52-6.02 3.42** 1.38-8.48
Boys 1.13 0.84-1.52 0.97 0.67-1.39 3.45*** 1.88-6.34
Age (yr) 2.11*** 1.86-2.40 1.42*** 1.24-1.63 1.03 0.85-1.25
Family structure
 Intact 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Parents divorced/separated and reconstructed family 2.30*** 1.64-3.23 3.10*** 2.04-4.69 3.15*** 1.71-5.78
 Single parent and others 2.81*** 1.83-4.31 3.49*** 2.11-5.78 4.70*** 2.37-9.32
Father’s occupation
 Managers, professionals, and intermediate professionals 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Craftsmen, tradesmen, and firm heads 1.77* 1.09-2.86 2.67** 1.39-5.11 1.82 0.79-4.18
 Service workers and clerks 2.28** 1.28-4.07 2.85** 1.30-6.24 1.28 0.41-4.05
 Manual workers and other occupations 3.49*** 2.32-5.23 5.51*** 3.14-9.67 3.08** 1.50-6.34
 Inactive people 6.02*** 3.56-10.18 6.85*** 3.47-13.53 5.50*** 2.34-12.95
Insufficient income 1.82*** 1.28-2.59 1.77** 1.17-2.69 1.99* 1.11-3.57
WHOQoL-Bref (<25 th percentile value)
 Physical 1.78*** 1.29-2.47 3.77*** 2.58-5.50 3.78*** 2.21-6.49
 Psychological 1.72*** 1.25-2.37 3.09*** 2.12-4.51 4.55*** 2.66-7.79
 Social relationships 1.37 0.99-1.88 1.48* 1.01-2.18 2.55*** 1.50-4.31
 Environment 3.01*** 2.19-4.14 3.17*** 2.18-4.60 3.40*** 2.01-5.74
Unhealthy behaviours
Last-30-day substance use (at least once)
 Tobacco 1.94*** 1.31-2.87 5.33*** 3.53-8.06 5.91*** 3.33-10.49
 Alcohol 0.68* 0.50-0.93 1.38 0.95-2.01 3.13*** 1.80-5.43
 Cannabis 1.78* 1.06-2.98 3.71*** 2.17-6.33 5.91*** 3.00-11.64
 Other illicit drugs 2.61** 1.28-5.33 4.61*** 2.30-9.25 10.11*** 4.69-21.81
Lack of regular sports/physical activities 1.86** 1.23-2.82 2.21*** 1.39-3.51 3.26*** 1.80-5.88
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.