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Table 4 Results of univariate and expanded models where the outcome is self-reported health-related absence from work in the previous 90 days

From: Diabetes, HIV and other health determinants associated with absenteeism among formal sector workers in Namibia

Demographic Information   Crude Rate Ratio (IRR) Crude IRR 95% CI p-value Adjusted Rate Ratio (IRR) Adjusted IRR 95% CI p-value
Industry     < 0.0003    
  Retail and Trade    
  Agriculture 0.66 (0.46-0.94) 0.02    
  Fishing 1.53 (1.23-1.90) < 0.01    
  Electricity, gas & water 1.70 (1.32-2.20) < 0.01    
  Wholesale trade and repair of motor vehicles 1.39 (1.07-1.79) 0.01    
  Hotels and Restaurants 1.01 (0.66-1.55) 0.96    
  Transport, Storage and Communication 1.20 (0.90-1.59) 0.21    
Contract Type    
  Permanent    
  Part-time/Short-term 0.74 (0.63-0.89) < 0.001    
Job Type    
  Labour    
  Administration Work 1.03 (0.85-1.24) 0.80    
Age    
  Age 1.00 (0.99-1.01) 0.97    
Sex    
  Male    
  Female 1.07 (0.90-1.26) 0.41    
   Crude Rate Crude IRR    Adjusted Rate Adjusted IRR
Risk Factors   Ratio (IRR) 95% CI p -value Ratio (IRR) 95% CI p -value
BMI    
  BMI z-score 1.04 (0.96-1.13) 0.32 0.98 (0.90-1.07) 0.72
Waist Circumference    
  Normal    
  Above limit 1.21 (0.99-1.48) 0.06 1.10 (0.90-1.34) 0.42
Blood Pressure    
  Normal (< 140/90 mm/Hg)
  Elevated (140/90-153/103 mm/Hg) 0.75 (0.60-0.92) 0.01 0.74 (0.59-0.91) 0.01
  High (≥ 154/104 mm/Hg) 1.10 (0.84-1.43) 0.50 1.03 (0.78-1.35) 0.85
Smoking Status
  Never smoked
  Smoker 1.09 (0.89-1.34) 0.40 1.15 (0.94-1.42) 0.18
Hypertension
  No
  Yes 1.14 (0.92-1.41) 0.22 1.07 (0.86-1.34) 0.55
Diabetes        
  No
  Yes 3.40 (1.91-6.04) < 0.01 3.67 (2.06-6.55) < 0.01
Haemoglobin        
  Normal
  Anaemia 1.82 (1.35-2.46) < 0.01 1.59 (1.17-2.18) < 0.01
HIV        
  Negative
  Positive 1.55 (1.18-2.04) < 0.01 1.47 (1.12-1.95) 0.01
Hepatitis B        
  Negative
  Positive 1.01 (0.75-1.37) 0.92 1.14 (0.85-1.55) 0.38
Syphilis        
  Negative  
  Positive 0.64 (0.31-1.37) 0.22 0.83 (0.40-1.69) 0.60
  1. *adjusted IRR were calculated after controlling for industry, age, sex, job status, and contract type. All IRR were calculated by exponentiating the beta coefficients obtained from negative binomial regression
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