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Table 4 Sub-items reported as important aspects of the ten WHO determinants

From: Local decision makers’ awareness of the social determinants of health in Turkey: a cross-sectional study

WHOSocial determinants of health HN* (n = 22)
Social gradient  
Poor economic circumstances 13
Stressful life 5
Psychological wear 1
Changing jobs and facing redundancy 1
Stress  
Social isolation 1
Increased cardiovascular disease risk 1
Increased cerebrovascular disease risk 1
Immune system weakness 1
Increased depression risk 1
Early Life  
Inadequate income of family 11
Low educational attainment of family on bring up children 5
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy 3
Social Exclusion  
Poverty 7
Facing racism and discrimination 2
Exclusion of psychiatric cases or mentally handicapped 1
Work  
Out of control over her/his own work 19
Stress at work 9
Inadequate value of labor 3
Unemployment  
Financial problems, debt expansion 11
Increased depression and worry 6
Chronic stressors 2
Social support  
Decline in social support = decline in prosperity 16
Lower social cohesion 9
Experience more depression 6
Addiction  
Violence 9
Social deprivation 4
Increase in accidents 3
Financial problems 3
Food  
Cancer 7
Overconsumption = obesity 4
Diabetes 1
Degenerative eye disease 1
Consumption of cheaper processed foods by the poor 1
Transport  
To provide exercise and reduce obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease 7
Exercise decreases risk of depression 7
Public transport stimulates social interaction 6
Public transport reduces air pollution 6
Cycling and walking provide exercise 6
Cycling and walking make little noise 2
WHO Social determinants of health Mayors (n = 42)
Social gradient  
Stressful life 33
Psychological wear 23
Poor education 22
Stress  
Increased depression risk 23
Lack of control over home 22
Lack of control over work 17
Immune system weakness 17
Early Life  
Inadequate income of family 29
Maternal smoking 20
Low educational attainment of family 20
Low educational attainment of family on bring up children 18
Social Exclusion  
Exclusion from employment possibilities 32
Poverty 22
Exclusion of psychiatric cases or mentally handicapped 17
Work  
Stress at work 30
Inadequate value of labor 19
Lack of social support 17
Unemployment  
Financial problems, debt expansion 34
Increased depression and worry 28
Feel insecurity 24
Social support  
Decline in social support = decline in prosperity 31
Experience more depression 29
Lower social cohesion 27
Addiction  
Violence 35
Social deprivation 30
Increase in accidents 28
Suicide 28
Food  
Overconsumption = obesity 34
Consumption of cheaper processed foods by the poor 25
Increased cardiovascular disease 24
Transport  
Public transport reduces accidents 34
Cycling and walking provide exercise 30
Cycling and walking make little noise 27
  1. *Heads of neighborhood.
  2. *Multiple responses were given.