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Table 4 Description of Main Variables of Interest

From: Development and validation of sunlight exposure measurement questionnaire (SEM-Q) for use in adult population residing in Pakistan

Variables Sunlight exposure groups Total (n = 54)
Low (n = 19) Moderate (n = 18) High (n = 17)
Serum vitamin D (ng/ml) [Mean(SD)] 9.8 (4.7) 11.1 (4.6) 17.0 (6.5) 12.3 (5.9)
PS UV dosimeter (MED) [Median(IQR)] 0.5 (0.1–10.2) 0.8 (0.2–8.2) 3.6 (2.1–11.9) 1.2 (0.1–11.9)
ST SEM-Q*
Time (minutes) spent outdoors 69.5 (32.0) 83.5 (29.7) 329 (115.7) 95.6 (18.7–487.5)**
Adjusted time (minutes) *** 43.0 (22.5) 64.9 (21.8) 258 (114.7) 76.3 (12.0–463.8)**
LT SEM-Q
Time (minutes) outdoors in summer [Mean(SD)] 54.5 (30.0) 81(62.7) 331.2 (63.8) 150 (134.9)
Mean (SD) time outdoors in winters 59.7 (32.5) 89.4 (65.0) 310 (85.0) 148 (127.6)
  1. SD=Standard deviation; MED=Minimal erythemal dose; IQR=Inter quartile range;
  2. * Significantly different on Kruskal Wallis test (P <0.001); ** Medians (IQR) reported; *** adjusted for weather outdoors, seeking shade & travel in vehicle.