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Table 2 Predictors of genital ulcer symptoms among women in the general population

From: Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

  Univariate Multivariate
     p-value Model I Model II Model III
Age in years n % OR (CI) <0.001 OR (CI) OR (CI) OR (CI)64
15–19 790 2.3 1.0 (0.52–2.02)   1.3 (0.64–2.64) 1.6 (0.81–3.31) 1.3 (0.–2.55)
20–24 1307 2.8 1.3 (0.74–2.24)   1.4 (0.81–2.55) 1.6 (0.87–2.79) 1.4 (0.81–2.50)
25–29 1348 4.5 2.1 (1.26–3.46)   2.2 (1.32–3.74) 2.3 (1.33–3.80) 2.2 (1.30–3.61)
30–39 1763 3.5 1.6 (0.94–2.84)   1.7 (0.98–2.94) 1.7 (0.98–2.95) 1.67 (0.96–2.89)
40–49 985 2.2 Ref   Ref Ref Ref
Residence     0.248    
Urban 2605 3.6 1.2 (0.87–1.73)     
Rural 3588 3.0 Ref     
Marital     0.027    
Never married 1002 2.4 Ref   Ref Ref  
Married / Cohabiting 4302 3.2 1.4 (0.85–2.20)   1.4 (0.82–2.27) 1.5 (0.93–2.49)  
Widowed /Separated / Divorced 889 4.1 1.8 (1.01–3.15)   1.8 (0.98–3.34) 1.7(0.93–3.03)  
Wealth index     0.051    
Poorest / Poorer 2185 2.7 Ref   Ref   
Middle 1274 3.0 1.1 (0.74–1.73)   1.1(0.74–1.73) 1.1 (0.74–1.72)  
Richer / Richest 2734 3.8 1.4 (0.96–2.06)   1.4 (0.98–2.10) 1.4 (0.98–2.09)  
Education     0.303    
No education 714 2.4 Ref     
Primary 3426 3.3 1.4 (0.73–2.53)     
Secondary/ Tertiary 2053 3.4 1.4 (0.76–2.72)     
Recent sexual activity        
Active last 4 weeks 3767 3.4 1.0 (0.73–1.49) 0.893    
Not active last 4 weeks 1609 3.3 Ref     
Used condom last sex     0.693    
No 4615 3.4 Ref     
Yes 691 3.7 1.1 (0.67–1.82)     
Relationship with last partner     0.322    
Spouse/Live-in partner 4339 3.3 Ref     
Casual acquaintance /Girl friend 940 4.1 1.3 (0.85–1.86)     
Age at first sex (in years)     0.613    
<16 2326 3.4 1.2 (0.72–1.84)     
16–19 2783 3.2 1.1 (0.68–1.79)     
>19 1084 2.9 Ref     
Life-time sex partners     <0.001    
1 2740 2.0 Ref     
2–4 3115 4.0 2.0 (1.42–2.90)    2.0 (1.37–2.79) 2.0 (1.37–2.82)
5–10 298 7.4 3.9 (2.21–6.91)    3.9 (2.17–7.01) 3.9 (2.18–6.93)
11 and above 33 7.9 4.2 (0.90–19.29)    4.6 (0.93–22.49) 4.5 (0.95–21.70)
  1. Model 1 Underlying variables with p  < 0.2 in the univariate analyses.
  2. Model 2 Underlying + proximate determinants with p  < 0.2 in the univariate analyses.
  3. Model 3 variables with p  < 0.1 in model II.