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Table 1 Contents of e-mail messages using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) model as the framework[2729]

From: Promoting walking among office employees ― evaluation of a randomized controlled intervention with pedometers and e-mail messages

  Timing Elements of HAPA Content of the e-mail message
ORIENTATION
Preliminary meeting   Risk perception · Information on the intervention, benefits of physical activity (PA), PA recommendations and walking
    · Instructions on monitoring PA with a pedometer and a logbook and assessing the average number of daily steps at baseline
    · Presentation of the ultimate goal of adding 4000 moderate-intensity steps to the baseline on 5 days of the week
MOTIVATIONAL PHASE (INTENTION BUILDING)
1st e-mail
“Regaining strength by physical activity”
Within 2 weeks from the preliminary meeting Positive outcome expectations, pre-action self-efficacy, action planning · Benefits of integrating short bouts of PA into daily routine
    · The 1st goal of adding 2000 steps to the baseline on 2 days of the week
    · Simple tips for accumulating 2000 steps
VOLITIONAL PHASE (INTENTION): PLANNING, PREPARING AND INITIATING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
2nd e-mail
“Finding time through experience”
4 weeks after the 1st e-mail Positive outcome expectations, risk perception, action planning, coping planning, self-monitoring · Positive outcomes after even a short bout of PA
    · Examples of finding time and places to be more active
    · The 2nd goal of adding 2000 steps to the baseline on 5 days of the week
3rd e-mail
“Making physical activity one’s own thing”
4 weeks after the 2nd e-mail Positive outcome expectancies, risk perception, coping planning, maintenance self-efficacy, action planning · Positive outcomes from being physically active
    · Examples of accumulating 4000 steps
    · The 3rd goal of adding 4000 steps on 2 days and 2000 steps on 3 days of the week to the baseline
VOLITIONAL PHASE (MAINTENANCE)
4th e-mail
“Preparing oneself against barriers”
4 weeks after the 3rd e-mail Action planning, coping planning, maintenance planning, maintenance self-efficacy · The importance of regularity in PA
    · The most critical barriers for PA and the ways to overcome them
    · Example of a 30-minute walking session with 4000 steps
    · The 4th goal of adding 4000 steps on 4 days and 2000 steps on 1 day of the week to the baseline
5th e-mail
“Getting oneself going”
4 weeks after the 4th e-mail Action planning, coping planning, maintenance self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy · Tips for making it easier to “get oneself going”
    · The 5th goal of adding 4000 steps to the baseline on 5 days of the week
6th e-mail “Establishing a physically active lifestyle” 4 weeks after the 5th e-mail Action self-efficacy, maintenance self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, action planning · Learning sustainable ways to be physically active
    · The importance of regularity and the possibility of rewarding oneself
    · Maintenance of current PA level and supplementation with muscle strengthening exercises on 2 days of the week
    · A printable form for a weekly action plan and monitoring