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Table 1 The demographic profile based on the questionnaire respondents and presented as proportions within the respective survey groups. (n = 4,450)

From: Household secondhand smoke exposure of elementary schoolchildren in Southern Taiwan and factors associated with their confidence in avoiding exposure: a cross-sectional study

  N % Wave 1a Wave 2b Pvalue
Regional      
   Pin-Tung 2292 51.5 ----- -----  
   Kaohsiung 2158 48.5 ----- -----  
Gender      
   Male 2237 50.3 51.7 48.7 0.046
   Female 2213 49.7 48.3 51.3  
Grade      
   3 1057 23.8 23.9 23.6 0.925
   4 1099 24.7 25.0 24.3  
   5 1120 25.2 25.0 25.3  
   6 1174 26.4 26.1 26.7  
Ethnicity      
   Non-aboriginal 3000 67.4 61.4 73.8 0.025
   Aboriginal 915 20.6 17.0 24.3  
School Geography      
   Urban 1923 43.2 42.1 42.5 0.358
   Rural 1662 37.3 33.2 34.6  
   Mountain 865 19.4 24.7 23.0  
Monthly household income      
   High (> $80,000) 557 17.8 19.3 16.4 0.039
   Middle ($40,000-$80,000) 1081 34.6 33.7 35.5  
   Low (< $40,000) 1483 47.5 47.0 48.1  
Mother's educational attainment      
   College or higher 287 8.3 8.9 7.7 0.098
   High school 2240 65.1 63.6 66.6  
   Lower than high school 913 26.5 27.4 25.7  
Father's educational attainment      
   College or higher 401 12.5 12.8 12.2 0.512
   High school 1857 57.8 57.0 58.7  
   Lower than high school 954 29.7 30.2 29.1  
  1. aWave 1 survey: the number of respondents in the 26 Ping-Tung elementary schools in 2008
  2. bWave 2 survey: the number of respondents in the 26 Kaohsiung elementary schools in 2009
  3. Variation in the total sample size across the various characteristics is due to missing data
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