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Table 4 Mortality among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims, stratified for hospitalization with an alcohol- or drug-related or a psychiatric diagnosis

From: Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

  Alcohol inpatient care (only)  
  Violence + alcohol
N
Violence (only)
N
Mortality
HR (95% CI)
Violent offenses + alcohol vs. violence only 596 1,543 3.75 (2.96-4.78)
Victimization + alcohol vs. victimization only 148 352 3.86 (2.46-6.07)
Violence + victimization + alcohol vs. violence + victimization only 146 89 2.45 (1.26-4.77)
  Drug inpatient care  
  Violence +drugs Violence (only)  
Violent offenses + drug vs. violence only 206 1,933 3.91 (2.99-5.11)
Victimization + drug vs. victimization only 44 456 1.97 (1.07-3.65)
Violence + victimization + drugs vs. violence + victimization only 65 170 2.56 (1.47-4.42)
  Psychiatric inpatient care  
  Violence + psychiatric Violence (only) Mortality
Violent offenses + psychiatric vs. violence only 463 1676 2.54 (1.99-3.23)
Victimization + psychiatric vs. victimization only 116 384 3.80 (2.44-5.93)
Violence + victimization + psychiatric vs. violence + victimization only 91 144 2.0, (1.58-3.45)
  Alcohol inpatient care  
  Violence + alcohol No violence + alcohol Mortality
Violent offenses + alcohol vs. others 596 48,238 5.53 (4.70-6.50)
Victim + alcohol vs. others 148 48,686 6.45 (4.81-8.61)
Violence + victimization + alcohol vs. others 146 48,688 5.64 (4.14-7.68)
  Drug inpatient care  
  Violence + alcohol No violence + drug  
Violent offenses + drug vs. others 206 48,628 7.67 (6.08-9.68)
Victimization + drug vs. others 44 48,790 3.39 (3.06-9.51)
Violence + victimization + drugs    
vs. others 55 48,769 7.74 (5.18-11.57)
  Psychiatric inpatient care  
  Violence + psychiatric No violence + psychiatric Mortality
Violent offenses + psychiatric vs. others 463 48,371 4.81 (3.97-5.83)
Victimization + psychiatric vs. others 116 48,718 7.07 (5.16-9.70)
Violence + victimization + psychiatric vs. others 91 48,743 6.25 (4.31-9.07)
  1. Bivariate analyses using Cox proportional regression. Hazard ratios (HRs) are given with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs)
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