Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted*) overall mortality and underlying causes of death**) among violent offenders, victims, and individuals who were both offenders and victims, adjusted for adolescent risk factors in a cohort of 48,834 Swedish conscripts

From: Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

  Accidents
N = 420
HR (95% CI)
Suicide
N = 487
HR (95% CI)
Alcohol and drugs
N = 507
HR (95% CI)
Circulatory disease
N = 400
HR (95% CI)
Neoplasm
N = 560
HR (95% CI)
Other causesa
N = 297
HR (95% CI)
All deaths
N = 2,671
HR (95% CI)
Violent offenders
No violent offense 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1 violent offense 1.26 (0.80-2.00) 1.55 (1.02-2.35) 2.04 (1.49-2.80) 1.48 (0.92-2.38) 0.89 (0.52-1.52) 0.49 (0.20-1.20) 1.39 (1.16-1.66)
2+ violent offenses 1.09 (0.57-2.09) 2.39 (1.51-3.77) 3.03 (2.20-4.17) 1.80 (0.99-3.28) 1.47 (0.79-2.74) 0.85 (0.32-2.12) 2.01 (1.64-2.46)
Victims
No victimization 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least one occasion of being victimized 1.10 (1.01-1.21) 2.00 (1.10-3.66) 3.61 (2.41-5.41) 2.69 (1.47-4.92) 1.38 (0.65-2.91) 3.03 (1.56-5.93) 2.45 (1.93-3.10)
Both offender and victim
No occasion 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least one occasion of offending and being victimized 1.13 (0.99-3.30) 1.84 (0.86-3.92) 2.57 (1.59-4.17) 2.43 (1.07-5.54) 0.74 (0.18-2.97) 4.56 (2.19-9.47) 2.12 (1.01-1.41)
  1. Cox proportional multivariate analyses. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are given in relation to all living participants
  2. *)Adjusted for the variables: parental divorce, social maturity, emotional control, contact with the police or juvenile authorities, conduct problems at school, running away from home, smoking, alcohol use, drug use, and psychiatric diagnosis at conscription
  3. **) Death cases due to accidents, suicide, circulatory problems, neoplasm, and other causes in combination with alcohol or drug-related diagnoses were excluded
  4. a) Other causes were respiratory (n = 45) or digestive disease (n = 47), endocrine problems (n = 55), a nervous system disorder (n = 57), infection (n = 20), and other diseases (n = 63)
\