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Table 2 Violence in relation to mortality and underlying causes of death among 48,834 Swedish conscripts

From: Mortality and causes of death among violent offenders and victims-a Swedish population based longitudinal study

  Accidents
N = 420
HR (95% CI)
Suicide
N = 487
HR (95% CI)
Alcohol and drugs
N = 507
HR (95% CI)
Circulatory disease
N = 400
HR (95% CI)
Neoplasm
N = 560
HR (95% CI)
Other causesa
N = 297
HR (95% CI)
All causes
N = 2,671
HR (95% CI)
Offenders
No violent offense 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1 violent offense
(n = 1,458)
1.75 (1.13-2.72) 2.03 (1.35-3.07) 4.28 (3.21-5.72) 1.89 (1.21-2.93) 1.05 (0.65-1.70) 0.81 (0.38-1.71) 1.98 (1.68-2.34)
2+ violent offenses
(n = 681)
2.21 (1.25-3.93) 3.59 (2.26-5.69) 10.84 (8.23-14.28) 2.68 (1.54-4.66) 1.55 (0.86-2.82) 1.57 (0.70-3.53) 3.94 (3.30-4.70)
Victims (n = 500)
No victimization 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least one occasion of being victimized 1.11 (1.02-1.22) 2.29 (1.26-4.16) 6.58 (4.58-9.47) 2.89 (1.59-5.27) 1.38 (0.65-2.91) 3.17 (1.63-6.15) 3.03 (2.42-3.80)
Both offender and victim
(n = 235)
       
No occasion 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least one occasion of offending and being victimized 1.20 (1.06-1.37) 3.11 (1.48-6.56) 10.51 (6.92-15.96) 4.03 (1.91-8.50) 1.21 (0.39-3.77) 6.15 (3.05-12.44) 4.37 (3.32-5.74)
  1. Cox proportional bivariate analyses. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are given in relation to all living participants*
  2. *) Death cases due to accidents, suicide, neoplasm, circulatory disease, and other causes in combination with alcohol or drug-related diagnoses were excluded
  3. a)Other causes were respiratory (n = 45) or digestive disease (n = 47), endocrine problems (n = 55), a nervous system disorder (n = 57), infection (n = 20), and other diseases (n = 63)
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